Angola Air Support (Part 2)

SAAF Mirage F1AZ

As mentioned last month, in November I’ll be putting on a demo game of the 1978 South African airborne assault on Cassinga, during the Angola ‘Border War’.  This scenario requires rather a lot of South African air power, so I’ve been making new models and sprucing up old models for the game, as well as digging out some more models from the war that haven’t seen the light of day for ten years or more.

I covered the SAAF’s Mirage F1, C-160 Transall, SA-330 Puma, Impala Mk II and Buccaneer S Mk 50 in the last article, so here are a few more aircraft from that war, as well as a small tutorial on how to convert a Shapeways 1/100th Cessna 175 into a SAAF Cessna 185A air observation post:

Above: The mainstay of the SAAF’s fast jet fleet at the start of the Border War was the Dassault Mirage III, of which South African had been a very early customer during the 1960s, having bought 15x Mirage IIICZ and 3x Mirage IIIBZ trainers.  This was followed up in the late 1960s with a further purchase of 16x Mirage IIIEZ, 3x Mirage IIIDZ trainers and 4x Mirage IIIRZ reconnaissance aircraft.

However, the SAAF’s Mirage III fleet was getting rather long in the tooth by the mid-1970s and the SAAF was looking for a replacement.  The Mirage F1 seemed to be the ideal candidate and negotiations were started with Dassault to enable licenced manufacture of the F1 within South Africa.  However, international sanctions against South Africa were ramping up and there was simply not going to be time to start a South African production line, so Dassault frantically rushed out a delivery of F1s to South Africa before sanctions stopped trade.

With fewer Mirage F1s than expected, the SAAF was going to have to keep the Mirage III in service for longer than planned and so with secret Israeli assistance, they began upgrading their Mirage IIIEZ  fleet.  This project eventually produced an advanced version of the Mirage III called the ‘Cheetah’, but this aircraft did not enter service until the 1990s; long after the reason for its existence had passed.

In the meantime, the Mirage IIICZ soldiered on and at Cassinga the Mirage IIICZs of No. 2 Squadron provided a Combat Air Patrol over the operation, as well as conducting strafing attacks against ground targets with the 30mm cannon.

Models of the Mirage III are readily available in 1/100th, with Heller and Tamiya both having produced plastic kits.  However, this one is a die-cast model by Italeri-Fabbri – originally painted in Israeli markings, I’ve repainted it as a SAAF machine.

Note that national and unit markings were routinely deleted from SAAF aircraft over Angola, so that does make painting the things slightly easier (though if you want to mark them, SAAF decals can be found in the Tamiya 1/100th Buccaneer kit, as mentioned previously).  The only markings here therefore, are the aircraft’s registration number, the ubiquitous ‘Mirage III’ logo and the ejector seat warning triangles.

Above: The arrival of the MiG-23ML ‘Flogger’ in Angola in the late 1980s came as a very nasty surprise to the SAAF, who had become rather used to getting their own way against the more typical MiG-17s and -21s.  The MiG-23ML was a considerably more capable aircraft than the older MiGs and Sukhois and also had the edge over the SAAF’s Mirage types.  Although marked as Angolan Air Force (FAPA-DAA), they were routinely flown by experienced Cuban pilots, as well as some Soviet and East German advisors, making them an extremely dangerous prospect for the SAAf to take on.

Following an engagement in 1988 where a SAAF Mirage F1 crashed on landing after being damaged by a missile from a Cuban-piloted MiG-23ML, the SAAF had to concede that they had lost air superiority over Angola.  This incident, as well as the increasing threat from large numbers of Soviet-supplied SAM-systems such as the SA-13 ‘Gopher’ and advanced MANPADS such as SA-16 ‘Gimlet’, forced the SAAF to withdraw its more vulnerable aircraft such as the Impala Mk II the theatre and restrict most of its operations to night-time.  Nevertheless, the SAAF still managed to shoot down twenty-five MiGs and Sukhois during this period (though no MiG-23s), for the loss of one Mirage F1 to an SA-13.

My MiG-23ML attacks UNITA forces during our Operation MODULER game at Bovington in 2008

Our MiG-23ML model was converted by Martin from an extremely rare MiG-27 ‘Flogger D’ plastic kit by Takara (the MiG-27 was the dedicated ground-attack version of the MiG-23).  The conversion basically involved changing the shape of the nose-cone from the MiG-27’s chisel-shape to the pointed radome of the MiG-23. and removing the long tail-rake that extends along the spine of the aircraft from the tailfin of the MiG-27 (and some marks of MiG-23, but not the ML).

I’ve spent the last ten years trying to find another Takara MiG-27 for my Soviets, though without any luck.  There is no other model of the MiG-23 or MiG-27 available in 1/100th. 🙁

Above: The Cessna 185A was used by the SAAF as an unarmed air observation post and liaison aircraft during the Border War.  They were eventually supplemented and largely replaced in the front line by the Aermacchi AM-3 Bosbok, which was an Italian-built and upgraded Cessna 185, having a much more powerful engine (and longer nose) and the capability to attach guns, bombs and rocket-pods for counter-insurgency work and target-marking.

At Cassinga a single Cessna 185A was used as a Forward Air Controller to coordinate and de-conflict the various air missions over the battlefield before being eventually driven off by anti-aircraft fire from the Cuban relief column.

However, there is no model of the Cessna 185A available in 1/100th.  I was going to do a ‘fudge’ and instead use a Cessna O-1 Bird Dog (which looks vaguely similar, though has a rounded tail-fin), but then I noticed that Shapeways produce a 3D-printed Cessna 175… The Cessna 175 is essentially the same aircraft, though has a tricycle undercarriage arrangement, whereas the Cessna 185 has a ‘tail-dragger’ configuration which is better for rough-field operations.  I thought that conversion would be an easy process, so ordered the Shapeways Cessna 175…

Above:  This is how the model looks when it arrives from Shapeways.  It’s a single-piece 3D-printed model and very nicely produced.  I need to turn it from a tricycle-undercarriage configuration into a tail-dragger:

Above:  The first job is to cut some bits of brass wire to make the landing-gear struts and steal some spare wheels from another kit:

Above:  Then bend the ends of the wire at a 45-degree angle and superglue on the wheels:

Above:  Snip off the existing undercarriage, sand smooth and then drill holes for the new undercarriage just forward of the wing-strut roots. Also drill a hole under the tail for the tail-wheel:

Above:  Cut the brass wire struts to length and superglue ’em in the ‘oles. Also add a small piece of bent brass wire to form the tail-wheel strut:

Above:  Job jobbed! 🙂

Above:  Another view of the finished and painted Cessna.  I’m very pleased with it and to be honest, it’ll also pass muster as a Bosbok (below).

Posted in 15mm Figures, Battlefront: First Echelon, Cold War, Cold War - Angolan Border War, Painted Units | 2 Comments

NATO Helicopters of the 1980s

Lynx AH Mk 1

Everyone who wargames with model helicopters knows that the bloody things are too fragile to play wargames with, so I do wonder why I persist with collecting the bloody things… However, they do look damn good on the table, so I thought I’d better photograph them before they inevitably fall to bits!

So here are some helicopters from the NATO half of my 1980s Cold War collection, together with some of the historical and organisational guff:

British Army Air Corps

Two Lynx AH Mk 1 and a Gazelle AH Mk 1

Above: Kicking off with our own Army Air Corps (AAC), here’s an anti-tank helicopter (‘HELARM’) flight, consisting of two TOW-armed Lynx AH Mk 1 and a Gazelle AH Mk 1 light observation helicopter.  The ratio was also often reversed, with two Gazelles being teamed with one Scout or Lynx.  Note that in the British Army, the abbreviation ‘AH’ means ‘Army Helicopter’ and not ‘Attack Helicopter’.

The order of battle for the Army Air Corps of the 1980s is a confusing and constantly-moving document, but here’s a brief outline (bear in mind that squadrons often rotated through Northern Ireland and some had long detours to the Falkland Islands):

1 Regt AAC (1 Armoured Division) – 651 & 661 Sqns (plus 652 Sqn from 2 Regt 1983)

2 Regt AAC (2 Armoured Division) – 652 & 662 Sqns (2 Regt was disbanded in 1983 along with 2 Armoured Division and its squadrons split between 1 Regt & 3 Regt)

3 Regt AAC (3 Armoured Division) – 653 & 663 Sqns (plus 662 Sqn from 2 Regt 1983)

4 Regt AAC (4 Armoured Division) – 654 & 664 Sqns (664 Sqn transferred to 1 (Br) Corps HQ in 1983.  4 Regt was then reinforced by 659 & 669 Sqns from 9 Regt)

7 Regt AAC (UK) – 656 Sqn (assigned to 1 Brigade – UK Mobile Force), 658 Sqn (assigned to 5 Airborne Brigade), 666 (V) Sqns (assigned to UK Home Defence) & 2 Flt (assigned to ACE Mobile Force (Land) – Gazelle)

9 Regt AAC (UK) – 659 & 669 Sqns (9 Regt disbanded 1983 with Sqns transferred to 4 Regt.  9 Regt then reformed in 1989 to support 24 Airmobile Brigade with the newly-raised 672 Sqn and 3 Flt from Northern Ireland)

Northern Ireland Regt AAC (became 5 Regt in 1990) – 655 & 656 Sqns (655 Sqn to accompany 2 Infantry Division to reinforce BAOR from 1983), plus 1 Flt (Beaver AOP) and 3 Flt (Gazelle).

Independent AAC Units:
657 Sqn (assigned to 5 Field Force (which became 19 Infantry Brigade in 1983) as reinforcement to BAOR)
660 Sqn (Hong Kong & Brunei Garrison – Scout)
664 Sqn (transferred from 4 Regt to HQ 1 (Br) Corps in 1983 to support the Corps Covering Force – Gazelle)
670 & 671 Sqns (Training)
667 Sqn (reformed in 1989 from the Development & Training (D&T) Sqn)
7 Flt (Berlin Garrison – Gazelle)
8 Flt (Special Forces – Scout then Agusta A109 from 1982 (thanks Argentina!))
12 Flt (HQ BAOR – Gazelle)
16 Flt (Cyprus Garrison – Gazelle)
25 Flt (Belize Garrison – Gazelle)
29 (BATUS) Flt (Canada – Gazelle)
UNFICYP Flt (UN Mission Cyprus – Gazelle)

Anti-Tank Squadrons (numbered 651 to 659) were usually organised with 12x Lynx or Scout and 4x Gazelle, though some squadrons seem to have varied the numbers and ratios at various times.

Recce Squadrons (numbered 660 to 669, omitting 667 & 668) mostly had 12x Gazelle, though some squadrons occasionally added 4x Lynx.  However, there were some oddities: 660 Sqn in Hong Kong had 12x Scout and 666 (V) Sqn in the UK also had 12x Scout.

Lynx AH Mk 1

Above: A close-up of one of the Lynx.  The Lynx AH Mk 1 began replacing the  Scout AH Mk 1 in the anti-tank role from 1978, with most machines being delivered by 1983.  Lynx was officially fitted with 8x TOW missiles, though slow delivery meant that they weren’t actually fitted with TOW until around 1982!  651, 652 and 666 (V) Squadrons held on to their Scouts until the 1990s.  It was apparently a very quick and easy job to fit or remove the missiles and convert the Scout and/or Lynx from the Anti-Tank role to the Light Battlefield Helicopter (LBH) role (i.e. tactical transport) and vice versa.

Upgraded Lynx AH Mk 7 models were delivered from 1988.  These had a reinforced airframe, thermal imaging as standard, improved tail-rotor, improved avionics and enhanced defensive aids, though looked essentially the same as the Mk 1.  The missiles were also upgraded at around this time to Improved TOW (ITOW).  Many existing Lynx AH Mk 1s also received thermal imaging and ITOW at this time.  A third Army version, the Lynx AH Mk 9 (recognisable by its wheeled undercarriage) was just coming into service at the end of the 1980s to fill the LBH role with 672 Sqn in the newly-reformed 9 Regt AAC, supporting 24 Airmobile Brigade (armed with nothing heavier than a door gun).

The Lynx models here are 1/100th scale plastic kits by Team Yankee, while the Gazelle is a 1970s-vintage kit by Heller. The Lynx is a very nicely-detailed and robust kit, though like all Team Yankee helicopters, the windows are opaque and need to be painted in. Most people seem to use shades of sky-blue for this, but I prefer to use black, graduating up through gun metal to bright silver, topped off with a gloss varnish. As usual for Team Yankee models, the decals are terrible.

Gazelle AH Mk 1

Above: A close up of the Gazelle AH Mk 1.  The Gazelle was adopted by the AAC in 1974, replacing the Sioux AH Mk 1.  The Sioux had been completely retired from service by the 1980s.  As mentioned above, Gazelles were the mainstay of the AAC’s Reconnaissance Squadrons and Independent Flights throughout the 1980s, as well as providing an integral reconnaissance capability to Anti-Tank Squadrons, as well as performing liaison duties and functioning as artillery FOOs and Forward Air Controllers.  The Gazelle was also used by all three services for helicopter pilot training.

Despite a number of trials and despite other nations such as France arming their Gazelles, British Gazelles remained officially unarmed, though during the Falklands War, some were fitted as gunships with GPMGs and even 68mm SNEB rocket pods.  Some British Army Gazelles were eventually upgraded during the 1980s with thermal imaging sights, which greatly aided their recce role, though I don’t know how common this modification was.

This is a pretty good kit by Heller’s standards, though is quite fragile.  Team Yankee have since brought out a Gazelle in their Cold War French range (with options for HOT missiles or 20mm cannon), which looks to be far more robust for wargaming purposes.  The Heller kit only comes with French decals, so I’ve painted on the British Army markings.

Scout AH Mk 1

Above:  I’ll tell you what I want, what I really, really want and that’s a Westland Scout AH Mk 1 in 1/100th scale!  I live in eternal hope that Team Yankee or someone else might eventually produce one.  Pleeeeeease?!  🙁

As mentioned above, the Scout was primarily used in the anti-tank role, armed with four SS-11 missiles.  The SS-11 rig was apparently very easy to fit or remove and the Scout could therefore be rapidly changed from Anti-Tank to the LBH role and in the Falklands they were rapidly flipped back and forth between SS-11, troop transport and casevac missions.  651 and 652 Sqns kept their Scouts throughout the 1980s and as mentioned above the Scout was also used by 660 and 666 (V) Reconnaissance Squadrons, as well as by the independent 8 Flight AAC, which provided helicopter support to the SAS (8 Flt’s Scouts were replaced in 1982 by two captured Argentine Agusta 109s and two more purchased Agusta 109s).  The venerable Scout was finally retired in the mid-1990s when 666(V) Sqn was disbanded.

The RAF provided heavier battlefield helicopter support in the form of Wessex, Puma and Chinook helicopters and the Royal Navy would also provide Wessex and Sea King ‘Jungly’ troop transports for expeditionary operations.  There was also 3 Commando Brigade Air Squadron, Royal Marines (mostly crewed by Royal Navy pilots), which had 12x Gazelle and 6x Scout (Lynx AH Mk 1 replacing Scout after the Falklands War of 1982).  I do actually have an RAF Westland Wessex HC Mk 2 tactical transport helicopter, which is a repainted Italeri die-cast model (it was originally an RAF Royal Flight machine in bright red livery).  However, the very fragile plastic undercarriage is catastrophically broken and needs extensive repair, 🙁

Canadian Forces

CH-136 Kiowa

Above: The CH-136 Kiowa was a Canadian licence-built version of the Bell 206 (known in US military service as the OH-58A Kiowa) and was used by the Canadian Forces from 1971 onward.  These were primarily used as unarmed scout and liaison helicopters, though some were fitted during the 1980s with 7.62mm Miniguns, giving them a limited attack or anti-helicopter capability.

The only permanently-assigned Canadian helicopter squadron in Europe was 444 Tactical Helicopter Squadron, which was assigned to 1 Air Division at CFB Lahr in West Germany and was tasked with supporting 4 Canadian Mechanised Brigade Group.  444 Sqn had 6x CH-136 Kiowa for reconnaissance & liaison and 6x CH-135 Twin Huey (Bell 212 or UH-1N Iroquois) for tactical transport.  Canada had no attack helicopter capability and would therefore have to rely on higher-level helicopter support from NATO allies such as the USA or West Germany.

408 Sqn helicopters over Rockies. CH-136 Kiowa and CH-135 Twin Huey.

In Canada itself, all helicopters were assigned to 10 Tactical Air Group.  Three squadrons were organised identically to 444 Sqn with a mix of CH-135 and CH-136 and were similarly tasked with supporting ground formations: 408 Sqn was assigned to 1 Canadian Brigade Group, 430 Sqn was assigned to 5 Groupe-Brigade du Canada and 427 Sqn was assigned to the Special Service Force.  400, 401, 411 & 438 Sqns were made up of Reservists and only had 6x Kiowas apiece.  403 Sqn was the primary helicopter training squadron and had 6x CH-135, 6x CH-136 and 6x CH-118 Iroquois (Bell 205 or UH-1H Iroquois).  Lastly, 447 and 450 Sqns were transport squadrons with 4x CH-147 Chinook apiece, though 450 Sqn also had 6x CH-135 Twin Huey.

Bell 206 variants were widely exported and were also built under licence in Italy as the Agusta-Bell 206.  They were used by several NATO nations and many other countries, so it’s a shame that there is basically only one rather poor model available in anything near 1/100th scale; namely the ‘Pocket Pak’ OH-58A Kiowa kit by Entex.  In fact it’s a bit on the small side, being more like 1/110th scale, but looks the part.  I’ve upgraded it with a spare Minigun taken from the Team Yankee M113 APC pack.

The Entex kit’s cockpit canopy is moulded in a horrible bright green clear plastic that just looks awful, so I painted over it in the same manner as the opaque canopies.  The side-door windows and the windows in the underside of the nose are opaque in any case, so need to be painted in.

West German Heeresflieger

West German MBB-105P PAH-1s Support Danish Recce


Above: A pair of West German Army MBB-105P PAH-1 anti-tank helicopters support a Danish reconnaissance unit against a Warsaw Pact advance through Schleswig.  The Danes had extremely limited helicopter support during the 1980s; only a single squadron of unarmed OH-6 Cayuse light observation helicopters (currently awaiting painting!), so would rely upon German and other NATO helicopters to provide helicopter anti-tank capability.

West German MBB-105P PAH-1

Above: The MBB-105 was by far the most common helicopter in West German service during the 1980s, having started replacing the venerable Alouette II during the 1970s.  There were two main versions used by the Bundeswehr; the unarmed MBB-105CB VBH (VBH meaning Verbindungshubschrauber or ‘Liaison Helicopter’) and the HOT ATGM-armed MBB-105P PAH-1 (PAH meaning Panzerabwehrhubschrauber or ‘Anti-Tank Helicopter’).

The PAH-1 variant, armed with 6x HOT missiles, was actually only meant to be an interim version until a ‘proper’ attack helicopter could be produced.  While the basic MBB-105 was an excellent light battlefield helicopter, the PAH-1 lacked defensive aids and thermal sights for night-fighting.  However, the European Tiger attack helicopter didn’t appear until the late 1990s, so the PAH-1 soldiered on well into the 21st Century.  It was however, upgraded during the 1980s to PAH-1A1 standard with the adoption of HOT 2 missiles.

The models here are very nice, robust plastic models by Team Yankee. However, like all Team Yankee helicopter kits, the windows are opaque and need to be painted.  Like all West German vehicles and helicopters, the MBB-105s were initially painted in a plain, standard NATO ‘Yellow Olive’ scheme, with yellow bands around the tail-boom, large German crosses and ‘HEER’ in large, white letters on the side.  However, they switched during the 1980s to this camouflage scheme consisting of black and quite a bright shade of green, with far less visible markings.  However, some items such as the HOT missile sighting-unit above the cockpit and the HOT tubes remained painted in yellow-olive.  The decals are as supplied by Team Yankee and are bloody awful; I basically had to glue them on using varnish!

If you want to do the VBH version, leave off the missile tubes (obviously) and the missile-sight box and then blank off the hole where the missile sight should go with filler or plasticard.  However, the Germans weren’t as keen as the British and Americans on unarmed scouts, so the VBH machines were mainly just used for liaison purposes and therefore fall largely outside the scope of a wargame.  However, I do have one here somewhere, being a re-painted die-cast Italian Police MBB-105 by Italeri.  Another die-cast MBB-105 was converted into a PAH-1.

West German UH-1D

Each of the three West German Army Corps had an Army Aviation Command (Heeresfliegerkommando), consisting of three Regiments.  One regiment in the command had 56x MBB-105P PAH-1 anti-tank helicopters (during the early 1980s some units still had Alouette II, equipped with SS-11 missiles), a second regiment had 48x UH-1D utility helicopters and the third had 32x CH-53G heavy transport helicopters.  Each of these regiments also had 5x Liaison Helicopters (either MBB-105CB VBH or Alouette II VBH) and there were another 15x VBH in each Aviation Command HQ squadron.

Each Division and Corps HQ also had a liaison squadron equipped with 10x MBB-105CB VBH or Alouette II VBH.  These HQ liaison squadrons were the last gasp of the Alouette II in front-line German service, with some surviving into the 1990s.

The majority of German Territorial Commands did not have helicopters permanently assigned.  However, the Schleswig-Holstein Territorial Command was the exception, as it was a very different organisation containing regular units and operating independently of the rest of the Bundeswehr north of the Elbe, under command of the Danish-led LANDJUT Command.  It therefore had a single mixed Aviation Regiment with 21x PAH-1, 24x UH-1D and 15x VBH.

This model above is a Revell 1/100th UH-1H model, which is visually identical to the UH-1D (the differences were internal, namely a different engine).

I was going to waffle on about the Americans and Belgians, but this post is long enough, so I’ll leave that for next time!  Here’s a taster…


Posted in 15mm Figures, Battlefront: First Echelon, Cold War, Cold War - NATO Armies, Painted Units | 7 Comments

American War of Independence Action

As previously mentioned, in 2005 we suddenly decided to do ‘something in 28mm’.  By fate, a couple of random packs of Foundry AWI figures fell into my possession and my mate Eclaireur released his excellent British Grenadier! rules for the period.  To cap it all, the Perry Brothers chose this moment to release the first few packs of their superb AWI range, so that was settled…

Six months later in January 2006 we decided to stick everything we’d painted on to table for a random club-night game at WASP in Pembroke Dock.  I’d forgotten about this game until I found the photos today.  The scenario was unhistorical, but was loosely based on Cornwallis’ flank attack at the Battle of the Brandywine, which we later played as a proper historical scenario.

Above: The British Army advances onto the field.  It must perform a river-crossing under artillery fire, before deploying to assault the main Rebel position.  The British generals are by Foundry, with staff officers by Perry.

Above: A battalion of the Hessian Grenadier Brigade approaches the ford.  Perry Miniatures from my collection.

Above: The British 1st Grenadier Battalion (Foundry) and the 17th Light Dragoons (Perry) have crossed the river and deploy into line.  The Grenadiers open their files in order to reduce the effects of enemy fire.  All from my collection.

Above: Hessian Jaegers run forward in skirmish order to oppose the Rebel skirmishers.  Perry Miniatures from my collection.

Above: The Hessian Jaegers and Rebel Militia start to take long-range pot-shots at each other across the fence-line.

Above: On the far flank, the British Guards Brigade and the 23rd Foot (Royal Welch Fusiliers), resplendent in their Prince of Wales’ Feathers, engage the Rebel skirmish-line.  The British are from my collection and the Rebels are from Jase’s – all Perry Miniatures.

Above: The Rebel army waits to receive the hated oppressor.  The infantry at this end of the line are by Perry, while the general, the Militia skirmishers and the 3rd Continental Light Dragoons are by Foundry.  All from my collection.

Above: A pair of Rebel regiments wait in reserve.  These are Foundry figures and I seem to remember that these were among the first I painted.

Above: The main Rebel line.  In the foreground the German Continental Regiment (Perry) guards the flank of an artillery battery (Foundry, as is the general) and beyond them another brigade of Continentals (Foundry, from Jase’s collection) supports a thick line of skirmishers (Perry, also Jase’s).

Above: The right flank of the main Rebel line.  Two regiments of Continentals (Perry) flank a battery of artillery (Foundry).  In the distance a British brigade has pushed back the Rebel skirmishers and has crossed the fence to close with the Rebel line.

Above: Another view of Jase’s troops on the Rebel left (mostly Foundry).

Above: As British artillery deploys in support and a huge column of British infantry follows up, the Hessian Grenadiers cross the river and deploy into line.  All from my collection – the Hessians are Perry Miniatures and the rest are Foundry.  The Hessian general is a SYW Prussian figure by Front Rank.

Above: As the Hessians complete their deployment into line, the British 1st Light Battalion (Foundry), with a company of the green-coated Queen’s Rangers in support (Perry), moves forward in open order.

Above: On the British right flank, the Guards get stuck into the Rebels!

Above: Sadly the last picture.  As the British line infantry starts to form a second line at the ford, the Elite Corps storms the fence-line.  The Hessian Jaegers have charged the Rebel Militia skirmishers, while in the foreground the 17th Light Dragoons move forward to charge the 3rd Continental Light Dragoons.  The British Grenadiers and Light Infantry meanwhile, have closed ranks before initiating their own charge, in concert with a battalion of Hessians on their right.


Most of the terrain was scratch-built by the supremely talented Martin Small.

Posted in 28mm Figures, American War of Independence, British Grenadier! Rules (AWI), Eighteenth Century, Games | Leave a comment

Some Angola Air Support


In November I’ll be doing my first show demo-game for many years at Warfare 2019 in Reading.  My original plan was to do a large ‘Cold War Hot’ game based on the book ‘First Clash’ by Kenneth Macksey (the Canadian 4th Mechanised Brigade defending against overwhelming numbers of Soviets), but I left it too late to apply for the show, so was restricted to a relatively small table.  So what to do…?

As it happens, I’ve had a semi-written small(ish) scenario kicking around on my hard-drive for 15 years or so based on the controversial Cassinga Raid by South African paratroops into Angola in 1978.  I already have most of the models required (either already built and painted or waiting to be), though what I need most is 1/100th Puma helicopters (I need 4-6 of them for the game and only had one), so I’ve spent the last few months scouring the internet for old Heller or Roskopf Puma kits.  By the power of eBay have thus far built my stock up to three Pumas.  Though with time getting short, I might have to opt for the final resort – the resin/metal Puma model by QRF.

So please let me know if you have any unwanted Heller or Roskopf 1/100th Pumas sitting around in your collection!  It’s a seller’s market…

Anyway, I recently painted the Pumas and a Transall transport aircraft for the game and it was a lovely day, so I took them outside to photograph them.  I also decided to photograph some of my pre-existing aircraft for the Angolan Border War, as they were all in the same box:

SAAF C-160Z Transall

Above: The C-160 Transall is a 1960s-vintage Franco-German tactical transport aircraft that is presently being replaced by A-400M Atlas and C-130J Hercules in those nations’ air forces.  It was also used by the Turkish and South African Air Forces.  The SAAF’s No. 28 Sqn operated both C-130 Hercules and C-160 Transall and used both types to deliver the paratroops to Cassinga.  Two C-160s remained airborne during the battle, carrying a reinforced reserve para company, which would be dropped to reinforce the main force, as required.  In the event they weren’t used, but remain an option for the scenario.  This model will also serve as a bit of eye-candy on the table and should (hopefully) make it immediately apparent that we’re playing an airborne scenario.

This is a bloody awful 1/100th kit by Revell (would the inclusion of locating lugs have been so bad, Mr Revell??!!!).  The supplied decals are German and French, so I’ve used the SAAF roundels from the Tamiya Buccaneer model.  Thankfully SAAF markings were usually very sparse during the Angola War.

Luftwaffe C-160 Transall at RAF Brawdy 1979

As it happens, the C-160 was the very first aircraft that a young JF set foot on board – at the RAF Brawdy air show in 1979.  The Luftwaffe had a permanent presence at RAF Brawdy in Pembrokeshire, supporting the panzer training unit at Castlemartin Range (they didn’t have anywhere in West Germany where they could fire the full range of tank ammunition) and C-160s were almost always present on the ground at Brawdy or flying overhead.  They always put on a superb display, demonstrating their very impressive STOL capability – landing on a sixpence, coming to a stop almost immediately and taking off again, seemingly vertically.  They’d also always have one open for the vistitors to walk through and for the young JF to sit in the cocpkit and make aeroplane noises…

Some things never change…

SAAF SA-330 Pumas

Above: The SAAF’s French-built SA-330 Puma helicopters were ubiquitous throughout the Border War as their standard workhouse tactical transport helicopter.  At Cassinga a total of thirteen Pumas and six Super Frelons were used for the operation, with twelve of the Pumas actually going in to extract the paras (doing so while under fire from Cuban T-34 tanks).  Although now retired from SAAF service, a few ex-SAAF Pumas are still flying with the RAF, who bought them to keep the RAF’s Puma force up to strength following the heavy demands of Iraq and Afghanistan on the RAF’s Puma fleet.

These models are ok-ish models of 1970s vintage by Heller (Roskopf apparently used a re-tooled version of the same kit).  My main criticism is that the rotors and particularly the rotor-head are bloody awful.  The kit only came with French markings, so again I’ve stolen some Tamiya Buccaneer roundels.

They’re flying over some SADF Ratel and Buffel APCs by QRF, plus an Ystervark AA vehicle that was converted by my good mate Martin Small from a Peter Pig Bulldog APC (he also designed the Buffel APC model for QRF).

SAAF Buccaneer S Mk 50

Above: The Buccaneer S Mk 50 was the export version of the superlative British low-level naval strike-fighter.  The SAAF was the Buccaneer’s only non-British user and only operated a single squadron of them, namely No. 24 Sqn.  The original 16 aircraft were steadily whittled down by accidents and maintenance problems caused by anti-Apartheid sanctions, so only six or so operated over Angola.  Five saw action at Cassinga; both in the initial pre-operation bombing and in close air support missions (mainly using rockets) during the battle itself and especially in response to the Cuban armoured counter-attack.

The Buccaneers were eventually withdrawn from operations over Angola to be re-roled as nuclear strike bombers, carrying South Africa’s highly-secret and home-grown nuclear weapons.

This is an excellent 1/100th kit by Tamiya.  The kit does include decals for the early SAAF maritime strike role, though over Angola they converted to the drab scheme shown here, almost devoid of markings (wreckage of downed aircraft showing clear national markings were highly prized as propaganda pieces).

SAAF Mirage F1CZ

Above: The Mirage F1 was the mainstay of the SAAF’s fast-jet force during the late 1970s and 1980s.  The SAAF used two versions – the F1CZ air defence fighter (of which there were 16) and the F1AZ ground-attack variant (32 aicraft).  These weren’t used at Cassinga (the delta-winged Mirage IIICZ was, however), though saw extensive action throughout the 1980s.

There is no commercially-available model of the Mirage F1 in 1/100th scale, so Martin scratch-built this model using the fuselage of a Tamiya Mirage III as the basis, with wings and tailplane added from plasticard.  I decided to add markings to this one (again from a Tamiya Buccaneer), as while many were unmarked, there is the odd photo of marked F1s operating in the theatre.

SAAF Impala Mk II (MB-326K)

Above: The Impala Mk II (also known as the MB-326K) was a single-seat light ground-attack version of the twin-seat Impala Mk I trainer, which was itself a licence-built version of the Italian Aermacchi MB-326M.  The SAAF operated 73 Impala Mk II, as well as 125 Impala Mk I and 62 Italian-built MB-326M.  These little aircraft were excellent counter-insurgency machines supporting operations against SWAPO-PLAN guerrillas, though also repeatedly proved themselves to be capable against even Angolan and Cuban regulars supported by extensive Soviet-supplied AAA and SAMs.  Their relatively low speed and extreme low-level capability also made them deadly against Angolan and Cuban helicopters.  However, the increasing capability of Soviet-supplied fighter and SAM defences meant that the Impalas had to be withdrawn from the campaign in 1987.

There is no model of the Impala Mk II, Impala Mk I or MB-326 available in 1/100th scale, so this is actually an Italeri 1/100th die-cast model of the very similar Aermacchi MB-339, which is an advanced version of the same airframe.  The nose of the MB-339 is considerably pointier than the rounded nose of the MB-326/Impala, so Martin remodelled the nose.  I then painted out the rear half of the canopy to make it look more like a single-seat Impala Mk II.  For the purists, the MB-339 has twin ventral fins underneath the tail, which aren’t a feature of the MB-326, but as it’s a die-cast model they’re impossible to cut off!

I’ve got another one of these models in reserve that I’ll eventually paint up as an Argentine MB-326 for the Falklands War.


Above: One of the more interesting developments during the Angolan Border War and a sign of Things to Come in modern warfare, was the development and employment of unmanned surveillance drones, in particular the Seeker UAV (and a precursor design known as the Gharr), which were developed with covert, sanctions-busting Israeli support.

These were unarmed, but were able to provide live TV pictures and allied to South Africa’s truly astonishing long-range artillery systems, these UAVs proved to be worth their weight in gold and made a lot of other countries (particularly the USA) sit up and take notice of the capabilities of UAV technology on the battlefield (bear in mind that at this time the British Army’s UAV was armed with ‘wet’ camera film that would have to be recovered and developed).  Their small size, low radar cross-section and low infra-red signature also made them extremely difficult to shoot down and on the Lomba River in 1987 the Angolans fired literally dozens of SA-7, SA-8, Sa-9, SA-14 and SA-16 missiles, as well as thousands of rounds of 14.5mm and 23mm AAA at one without effect.

This model was completely scratch-built by Martin.


Posted in 15mm Figures, Battlefront: First Echelon, Cold War, Cold War - Angolan Border War, Painted Units | 4 Comments

“Beware of the Leopard!” (Part 2) – West German Panzers of the 1980s

West German Leopard 1A1A2s

One of the perennial problems with historical wargaming, particularly when researching a particular army for a specific battle or timeframe, is finding out exactly who was using what and when.  In the Industrial Age, it becomes much more than just a matter of troop-types and uniforms, as we now have thousands of bits of technology, from infantry weapons to artillery, vehicles, tanks and aircraft to worry about, not to mention all the various sub-types, upgrades, introduction dates and retirement dates for all the different bits and pieces.

All of this can be quite overwhelming for a newcomer to a period and it can be quite frustrating when you’re excited to start a period, but don’t know which models to buy.  It gets even more frustrating when you buy models, only to find that you’ve got the wrong ones for your chosen unit, period or theatre of war…

However, some of us are afflicted with OCD when it comes to such things and we like putting together lists… Max Wünderlich in particular has devoted an enormous amount of time and research in determining exactly which units in the West German Bundeswehr were using which type of tank and when during the Cold War and has produced this wunderbar table, showing exactly which West German units were using which type of tank.  The full table, showing German tank equipment going back to 1964 can be found on the Battlefront: WW2 Orders of Battle page here.  It deserves a wider audience, so here’s the condensed 1980s section:


Cross-reference the units on the left, with the year at the top.  M48s are in red, cast-turret Leopard 1s (1A1, 1A2 & 1A5) are in yellow, welded-turret Leopard 1s (1A3 & 1A4) are in orange, Leopard 2s are in green and those units saddled with the Kanonenjagdpanzer are in blue.

Panzer Types of the 1980s

Kampfpanzer M48A2C

The last of these venerable tanks were still hanging on into the early 1980s; mainly in Heimatchütz (Home Guard) Brigades, where they had replaced the Kanonenjagdpanzer in Brigade Jagdpanzer Companies and Battalion Jagdpanzer Platoons, before being upgraded in turn to Kampfpanzer M48A2GA2 standard.

A few M48A2C were also converted into Pionierpanzer M48s with the addition of a dozer-blade, as an interim engineering vehicle while the Bundeswehr awaited deliveries of Pionierpanzer Leopard.  In this configuration the 90mm main gun was often (though not always) removed.

This is a Skytrex M48 Patton, modelled by Martin Small and painted by me.

Kampfpanzer M48A2GA2

The venerable M48A2C was showing its age by the late 1970s and was wholly outclassed by modern Soviet tanks such as the T-64 and T-72.  Although the M48A2C had largely been replaced in German service by Leopard 1 variants (and Leopard 2 was in the pipeline), there was still a need for armoured tank-destroyers in the Heimatchütz  Brigades, as most of their elderly Kanonenjagdpanzer had been converted to Raketenjagdpanzer Jaguar and to mortar OP vehicles.  M48s would fit the bill for that task, though even in that role, they would need upgrading.

Most remaining West German M48s therefore went through an upgrade programme from 1978 to 1980, with the new version being designated as the Kampfpanzer M48A2GA2.  In this version, the 90mm gun was replaced by the British L7 105mm gun, the fire control system was improved, passive night vision equipment was installed and the commander’s cupola (which on the old M48 was like an additional turret) was replaced by a low-profile version, mounting a 7.62mm MG in place of the Browning .50-Cal.  This new version was very similar to the M48A5 used by a lot of NATO allies.

The model here is a Skytrex M48 Patton, extensively converted by Martin Small and painted by me.

Kampfpanzer Leopard 1

Leopard 1A0

No 1960s-vintage baseline-model Leopard 1 (sometimes known as the Leopard 1A0 to distinguish it from later upgraded models) were still serving with the Bundeswehr by 1980.

Kampfpanzer Leopard 1A1

Leopard 1A1A2

The first upgraded Leopard 1 models began appearing during the late 1960s and were designated as Leopard 1A1.  This upgraded model included improved gun-stabilisation and fire-control, a thermal sleeve for the gun-barrel and the iconic ‘saw-tooth’ Leopard side-skirts.  However, as can be seen on Max’s chart above, this model was very rare in the early 1980s, being quickly replaced by upgraded models.

Leopard 1A1A1 – The Leopard 1A1 still suffered from painfully-thin armour, so an upgrade programme was instigated in the early 1970s, adding rubber-composite appliqué armour to the turret sides and a new spaced armour mantlet, bringing the armour protection up to the same standard as the Leopard 1A2, 1A3 and 1A4.  This was by far the most common Leopard variant in service with the Bundeswehr during the 1980s.

Leopard 1A1A2 – This further modification of the 1A1A1 model during the 1980s added PZB200 image-intensifiers, which were being cascaded down from Leopard 2s, which were themselves being upgraded.

Leopard 1A1A3 – These were Leopard 1A1A1s which had been upgraded with digital radios.

Leopard 1A1A4 – These were Leopard 1A1A1s which had been upgraded with both the PZB200 image-intensifier of the 1A1A2 and the digital radios of the 1A1A3.

Note that a lot of the Leopard 1A1A1s listed on the chart above, particularly in the second half of the decade, were probably 1A1A3 or 1A1A4.

The model above is a plastic Leopard 1A1A2 by Team Yankee, assembled and painted by me.  For reasons known only to the lads at Team Yankee, they picked the Leopard 1A3/1A4 as their ‘standard’ German Leopard 1 model, even though the Leopard 1A1A1/1A1A2 was far more common.  Thankfully, the parts included in the Team Yankee Leopard 1 box allow you to build a perfect Leopard 1A1A1 or 1A1A2 from the parts supplied for the Dutch Leopard 1-V.  Use the searchlight box for the 1A1A1 or the caged image-intensifier for the 1A1A2.  Additionally, QRF produce a metal Leopard that is perfect for the basic Leopard 1A1 without the additional armour (or for the later 1A2).

Kampfpanzer Leopard 1A2

Leopard 1A2

Although it looked identical to the Leopard 1A1, the Leopard 1A2 addressed the issue of armour-protection by having thicker turret armour included in the design.  It did not therefore require the additional armour package used on the 1A1A1 and subsequent upgraded 1A1 models.  All other features were exactly the same as the 1A1.  The Leopard 1A2s were therefore the only ‘smooth’ cast-turreted Leopard 1s in service from 1981 onward, once all the 1A1s had been up-armoured.

The Leopard 1A2 variants were fairly rare in German service, being mainly grouped within the 18th Panzer Brigade (6th Panzergrenadier Division) in Schleswig-Holstein (part of the Danish-led ‘LANDJUT’ Command).

Leopard 1A2A1 – As with the 1A1A2, this model was upgraded with hand-me-down PZB200 image-intensifiers from Leopard 2s.

Leopard 1A2A2 – As with the 1A1A3, this model was upgraded with digital radios.

Leopard 1A2A3 – As with the 1A1A4, this model had both the PZB200 image-intensifier and digital radios.

As mentioned above, QRF produce a Leopard 1A1/1A2 model.

Kampfpanzer Leopard 1A3

Leopard 1A2 (left) and Leopard 1A3 (right)

The Leopard 1A3 model first appeared in 1973 and introduced a completely new, ‘square’ welded turret which had the same level of armour protection as the 1A1A1 or 1A2, but with considerably more interior space and overall better protection for the crew.  This model’s capabilities were essentially the same as the 1A1 and 1A2, with the addition of an improved commander’s independent sight.

The Leopard 1A3 was fairly rare in West German service, being grouped along with all the 1A4 models in the 10th Panzer Division.

Leopard 1A3A1 – As with the 1A1A2 and 1A2A1, this model was upgraded with hand-me-down PZB200 image-intensifiers from Leopard 2s.

Leopard 1A3A2 – As with the 1A1A3 and 1A2A2, this model was upgraded with digital radios.

Leopard 1A3A3 – As with the 1A1A4 and 1A2A3, this model had both the PZB200 image-intensifier and digital radios.

Although I haven’t built any German Leopard 1A3s yet, Team Yankee and QRF both produce models of the Leopard 1A3.  PSC do a Leopard ‘1A3/1A4’, but the large periscopic commander’s sight pegs it more as a 1A4.

Kampfpanzer Leopard 1A4

Leopard 1A4

The Leopard 1A4 first appeared in 1974 and was a further improvement of the Leopard 1A3, sharing its distinctive ‘square’ welded turret.  The fire-control system of the 1A4 was now governed by an advanced (for the 1970s!) electronic computer and the commander now had a passive night-vision independent sight (the large ‘periscope’ of which being the main recognition feature of the 1A4).

There were no sub-variants of the Leopard 1A4.

As mentioned above, PSC produce a model Leopard ‘1A3/1A4’, but the large periscopic commander’s sight pegs it as a 1A4.

Kampfpanzer Leopard 1A5

With the slow production of Leopard 2 variants during the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Bundeswehr had an urgent need to upgrade their existing stock of Leopard 1s; particularly the large numbers of elderly 1A1 variants still in service.  This major upgrade included a new advanced fire-control system developed from that of the Leopard 2, incorporating thermal sights, a laser-rangefinder and the capability to fire APFSDS ammunition.  Internally the ammunition storage was all moved into the turret-rear and the gun mantlet was adapted to allow a possible future upgrade to a 120mm gun (though this later option was never adopted).

The first Leopard 1A5 rolled out in 1987 and eight brigades had converted by the end of the 1980s.  The Leopard 1A5 was widely exported from the 1990s and eventually became virtually  the ‘standard’ Leopard 1.

The above model was converted by me from the Team Yankee Leopard 1-V model simply by adding a box in front of the commander’s hatch to represent the thermal sight and by cutting off the ‘knobs’ for the coincidence-rangefinder lenses.

Kampfpanzer Leopard 2

The first Leopard 2 tanks were delivered to 9th Panzer Brigade (3rd Panzer Division) in late 1979 and represented a quantum-leap in capability when compared to the Leopard 1 or M48.  The new tank had a 120mm gun, a gun-stabiliser fitted as standard, an advanced ballistic computer, a laser-rangefinder, considerably better armour protection than the Leopard 1 and yet had mobility equal to that of the sprightly Leopard 1, despite the 50% increase in weight over the Leopard 1.

The first batch of Leopard 2 (later referred to as the Leopard 2A0 to distinguish it from the 2A1 and later models) were meant to be fitted with thermal sights, though many were in fact fitted with inferior PZB200 image-intensifiers.

Leopard 2A1 – These models, delivered from 1982 to 1983, had thermal commanders’ and gunners’ sights fitted as standard, as well as improved ammunition stowage and other minor changes.

Leopard 2A2 – These were the original 2A0 models upgraded from 1984 to 1987 to 2A1 standard and also incorporating other minor upgrades.  The removed PZB200 image-intensifiers were cascaded down to the Leopard 1 fleet.

Leopard 2A3 – These were delivered from 1984 to 1985 and incorporated digital radios and other minor changes.

Leopard 2A4 – This was the most significant upgraded model of Leopard 2 to appear during the 1980s and became the most widespread version.  The 2A4 included a new digital fire-control computer, a further increase in armour protection and an advanced fire-suppression system.

The model above is a plastic kit by Team Yankee, assembled and painted by me.  QRF also produce a 1980s-vintage Leopard 2 in metal.  There are no noticeable visual differences between the five early versions listed above, so the same models can be used for all variants.

Kanonenjagdpanzer 4-5

OK, it’s not a tank, but it is listed on Max’s chart above and was replaced by M48 and Leopard 1 tanks in the same units, so is worth mentioning here.  The Kanonenjagdpanzer 4-5 was a self-propelled 90mm anti-tank gun employed in the Jagdpanzer Companies of Heimatchütz Brigades and the Jagdpanzer Platoons of Heimatchütz Battalions.

In most cases these were replaced during the early 1980s by M48 or Leopard 1 tanks, but they remained in use with the 23rd Mountain Brigade until the 1990s.  Most redundant Jagdpanzer hulls were converted into Jaguar ATGM vehicles, but some were converted to become OP vehicles for the 120mm mortar companies in Panzergrenadier Battalions (see below).

The model above is a metal model by QRF.  The OP vehicle below is an ancient and long out-of-production plastic model by Roskopf with the gun removed and blanked off and a periscopic sight added.

Posted in 15mm Figures, Battlefront: First Echelon, Cold War, Cold War - NATO Armies, Painted Units | Leave a comment

“La Garde au Feu!”: My 15mm French Imperial Guard (Part 4 – The Young Guard – Uniforms and Painting)

In the last part of this series I looked at the organisation of Napoleon’s Young Guard at various stages in its development.  This time I’m looking at the uniforms of the various regiments that made up the Young Guard infantry (in Part 1 I looked at the Old Guard and in Part 2 I covered the Middle Guard).

The Tirailleurs-Grenadiers (1809-1810)

The 1er & 2ème Tirailleurs-Grenadiers wore a blue, short-tailed habit-veste coat, cut to light infantry style with pointed bottom-corners to the lapels, which were blue, piped white.  The collar was red, piped blue.  The pointed cuffs, tail-turnbacks and shoulder-straps were red, piped white.  The turnbacks had white eagle badges as turnback-ornaments.  Buttons were brass.

Shakos had white cords and white lace chevrons on the sides, in the same manner as the Fusiliers-Grenadiers.  The front of the shako was decorated with the Young Guard eagle-plate in brass, with national cockade above and brass reinforcing to the edge of the brim.  There were initially no chin-scales on the shako, though they were soon added.  Plumes were officially red-over-white.  The proportion of white to red varies from source to source, though the majority view seems to be that the plumes were split half red to half white (some sources show white with just the very tip in red – perhaps the top quarter or so).  However, plain red plumes and white-over-red plumes are also recorded for the 2ème Tirailleurs-Grenadiers.

Breeches and waistcoats were white and worn with black gaiters, which were shorter than the usual French pattern, only coming up to just below the knee.  White gaiters were also retained for parade dress.  The black gaiters were secured with brass buttons down the outside edge, while the white gaiters had white buttons.

Equipment was exactly the same as the Fusiliers-Grenadiers, namely two white cross-belts, one supporting a black cartridge-box decorated with the brass Young Guard eagle badge and the other supporting a short-sword.  The sword was decorated with a white sword-know with a red tassel.

Drummers wore the same uniform, though with gold-yellow lace edging to the lapels, collar, cuffs and turnbacks.

NCOs had mixed gold/red shako-lace and cords and mixed god/red fringed epaulettes.

‘Old Hands’ will already have spotted my deliberate mistake in the unit pictured… Officers were seconded from the Fusiliers-Grenadiers and wore the uniform of their old regiment.  So the officer shown below should instead have white, square-cornered lapels a plain blue collar and red Brandenburg cuffs with white cuff-flaps, all topped off with a red plume.  In my defence, I was led astray by the numerous prints and painted wargames units showing officers wearing the same style of uniform as the rank-and-file… 🙁

Bah! 🙁

As for the the Fusiliers-Grenadiers, the regiments of the ‘New’ Young Guard were not authorised Eagles and instead had to make do with various unofficial fanions or marker-flags.  One fanion of the 1er Tirailleurs-Grenadiers is recorded as a sky-blue flag, decorated with red grenade badges, as shown here.

If you want to model these using AB Figures, use the Young Guard Infantry 1809-13 figures and Fusilier-Grenadier Officers.  The fanion is by Fighting 15s.

In 1810 the 1er & 2ème Tirailleurs-Grenadiers became the 1er & 2ème Tirailleurs (see below).

The Tirailleurs-Chasseurs (1809-1810)

The 1er & 2ème Tirailleurs-Chasseurs wore a uniform very similar to that of the Tirailleurs-Grenadiers above.  The differences are shown in the figure on the right, namely:

The shako had no lace chevrons and instead of a plume had a green spherical pompom.

The shoulder-straps were green with red piping (one source says white piping).

The sword-knot was plain white.

Tail-turnback ornaments were green eagle and hunting-horn badges.

NCOs wore mixed green/gold shako-cords, lace and fringed epaulettes.

Officers wore the uniform of the Fusiliers-Chasseurs; namely a blue coatee with white lapels, plain blue collar, plain red tail-turnbacks and a red-over-green plume.

I’ve not painted any Tirailleurs-Chasseurs, as my 1809 Young Guard brigade is already represented by the Tirailleurs-Grenadiers above.  However, if you want to model these using AB Figures, use the Young Guard Infantry 1809-13 figures and trim the plumes down to make pompoms.  Also use Fusilier-Chasseur officer figures, though retaining the shako-plume.

In 1810 the 1er & 2ème Tirailleurs-Chasseurs became the 1er & 2ème Voltigeurs (see below).

The Conscrits-Grenadiers (1809-1810)

The 1er & 2ème Conscrits-Grenadiers again wore a short-tailed habit-veste, though this time cut in the line infantry style, with square lower corners to the lapels.  The lapels and collar were plain blue without piping.  The cuffs were like those of the Fusiliers-Grenadiers, being plain red with white, three-pointed cuff-flaps.  Shoulder-straps were blue with red piping.  Tail-turnbacks were white with red piping and red eagle badge ornaments.  Buttons were brass.

The shako had the brass Young guard eagle badge on the front, with national cockade above and brass edging to the peak.  Brass chin-scales were also added at some point before their disbandment in 1810.  Cords were red.  The sides of the shako had the white lace white chevrons that were the mark of Young Guard grenadier regiments.  This was topped off with a red spherical pompom, or a red feather plume in full dress.

Waistcoats, breeches, gaiters and equipment were the same as the Tirailleur-Grenadiers.

Drummers had either gold-yellow lace edging to collar, cuffs, lapels and tail-turnbacks OR just lace edging to the collar, with six lace chevrons on each sleeve.

NCOs wore mixed red/gold shako-cords, lace and possibly had fringed epaulettes.

Unlike the Tirailleurs, the officers this time wore the same basic colourings of uniform as the rank-and-file, with the usual officers’ distinctions of gold epaulettes and shako-decoration.

As this was a short-lived regiment, the lack of information has led to a wide variety of uniform variations in paintings and plates, many of which are undoubtedly bogus.  These include white piping on the lapels, plain white lapels, white shako-cords, padded red ‘trefoil’ shoulder-straps, white-over-red plumes and drummers’ red shoulder-wings.

I don’t have any information on fanions for the Conscrits-Grenadiers.

I haven’t painted these, as they were short-lived regiments that didn’t fight in the main theatres of war.  Though if you want to model these using AB Figures, use the Young Guard Infantry 1809-13 figures. The lapels are the wrong shape, though as it’s all plain blue, this will be invisible.  Use Fusilier-Grenadier officer figures.

In 1810 the 1er & 2ème Conscrits-Grenadiers became the 3ème & 4ème Tirailleurs (see below).

The Conscrits-Chasseurs (1809-1810)


The 1er & 2ème Conscrits-Chasseurs again wore a short-tailed habit-veste, though this time cut in the light infantry style, with pointed lower corners to the lapels and pointed cuffs, like the Tirailleur-Chasseurs. The lapels were plain blue without piping, though some prints show white piping.  The collar was meant to be plain blue, though all prints show red collars with white piping.  The pointed cuffs were red with white piping.  Shoulder-straps were green with red piping.  Tail-turnbacks were blue with red piping and green eagle badge ornaments. Buttons were brass.

The shako had the brass Young guard eagle badge on the front, with national cockade above and brass edging to the peak.  Brass chin-scales were also added at some point before their disbandment in 1810.  Cords were white.  Pompoms were green and were either spherical or carrot-shaped (both varieties are recorded).  Note that white chevrons were NOT worn on the sides of the shako, despite what these pictures show (the chevrons were the mark of Young Guard grenadier regiments).

Waistcoats and breeches were blue, though white waistcoats are also shown.  Gaiters were cut in ‘Hessian’ style like those of the regular light infantry regiments, with green lace edging and green tassels on the front.  Equipment was the same as the Tirailleur-Grenadiers, though sword-knots were green with red tassels.

Drummers had basically the same uniform, though with red shoulder-wings, red tail-turnbacks and yellow-gold lace edging to collar, lapels, cuffs and tail-turnbacks.  One description also shows NCO-style fringed epaulettes, being green with yellow-gold crescents and red fringe.

NCOs wore mixed green/gold shako-cords, lace and had fringed green epaulettes with gold crescents and red fringe.

Unlike the Tirailleurs, the officers this time wore the same basic colourings of uniform as the rank-and-file, with the usual officers’ distinctions of gold epaulettes and shako-decoration.

I don’t have any information on fanions for the Conscrits-Chasseurs.

Again, I haven’t painted these, though if you want to model these using AB Figures, use the Young Guard Infantry 1809-13 figures.

In 1810 the 1er & 2ème Conscrits-Chasseurs became the 3ème & 4ème Voltigeurs (see below).

The Tirailleurs (1810-1815)

Tirailleur (1810-1813)

The Tirailleurs continued to wear a uniform almost exactly the same as that worn by the Tirailleurs-Grenadiers, with one or two very minor differences.  The most obvious difference was that the shako-cords now changed from white to red.

The shako-plumes were retained for full dress and were still meant to be red-over-white, but the 2ème Tirailleurs is also recorded as wearing white-over-red plumes, while the 3ème Tirailleurs are recorded as having plain red plumes (almost certainly inherited from their days as the 1er Conscrits-Grenadiers).  However, pompoms were also adopted for wear in the field and were coloured by regiment.  Recorded colours are 1er: red-over-white, 2ème: white-over-red, 3ème: red lentille with white centre, 4ème: white lentille with red centre, 5ème: white lentille with blue centre, 6ème: blue lentille with white centre (N.B. a lentille pompom was a padded cloth disc rather than the typical wool pompom).

Tirailleurs with plume variation (1810-1813)

While officers were still seconded from the Fusiliers-Grenadiers and wore the uniform of that regiment, the expansion of the Young Guard in 1810-11 meant that officers were commissioned directly into the regiments of the Young Guard to fill the junior posts.  These officers would wear a uniform of the same style as the rank-and-file, though with the usual officers’ gold epaulettes and shako-lace and cords (so I’ve got it right this time! Yay!). 🙂

In March 1812, Napoleon decreed that the Middle and Young Guard battalions would carry fanions of a plain pattern.  For the Tirailleurs these would be a plain white flag (stop sniggering at the back…).  However, somewhat inevitably, the various regiments quickly began creating their own versions with various decorations on the variation of grenades, eagles, wreathed ‘N’s and the like; some of them not even being in the regulation white colour.  Only a few of these are positively identified and recorded, such as that of the 5ème Tirailleurs in 1813, which was a crimson flag with a gold star in each corner and a white central disc superimposed with the Young Guard crowned eagle badge in gold and a gold grenade on the reverse.

Aside from the Flanqueurs (see below), the Young Guard didn’t initially adopt the Bardin (commonly known as the ‘1812 Pattern’) uniform, though the re-constitution and massive expansion of the Guard in 1813 meant that manufacturing processes had to be streamlined and the uniform simplified.  The Young Guard was therefore ordered to adopt the new Bardin style on 8th April 1813.  However, as with the line regiments who had officially adopted the new Bardin uniform in 1812, old-style uniforms continued to be issued from stocks and until manufacturers had changed their manufacturing processes, so the Bardin uniform was probably not common until 1814 or late 1813 at the earliest.

The Tirailleurs‘ new coat was coloured the same as before, with brass buttons, red collar piped blue, red pointed cuffs piped white, blue lapels piped white, red shoulder-straps piped white and red tail-turnbacks piped white with white eagle badge ornaments.  The big difference was that the lapels were now very square in appearance and closed all the way down tow the waist, with no waistcoat visible.

Tirailleurs in 1815

Along with the change in coat-style in April 1813, the sabre-briquet (short sword) was removed from Young Guard service and the number of cross-belts was therefore reduced from two to one.  This was of the line infantry style, incorporating a ‘frog’ for the bayonet-scabbard.  The shako was also simplified from April 1813, with cords being removed and shako-lace (including the distinctive white chevrons) also being removed for all except officers.  The pompoms now became spherical and red for all regiments.

When the Tirailleurs were re-formed in 1815 they wore the 1813 Pattern uniform described above, though now with the addition of red fringed epaulettes.

For my Tirailleurs I’ve used the AB Figures Young Guard 1809-1813 figures.  These are modelled with full-dress plumes and there isn’t an option for boring pompoms, but why would anyone want them…?  😉 The fanions are by Fighting 15s.

For Tirailleurs in 1813-1814 wearing the 1813 Bardin uniform, use the AB Figures Young Guard 1814 figures.

For Tirailleurs in 1815 you’ll need them with fringed epaulettes, but AB Figures at present don’t make these.  They do produce 1813-1815 line infantry grenadier figures wearing fringed epaulettes, but these also have the sabre-briquet and two cross-belts, so aren’t really a good match unless you’re not that fussy…

The Voltigeurs (1810-1815)

Voltigeur (left) & Tirailleur (right) 1810-1813

The uniform of the Voltigeurs was essentially the same as that of the Tirailleurs, with the following differences:

The collar was chamois-yellow with blue piping.

Instead of shoulder-straps, the Voltigeurs wore green epaulettes with yellow crescents and a green fringe.

The sword-knot was green with a red tassel.

The tail-turnback ornaments were green hunting-horn badges.

The shako had white cords and a red-over-green plume.  Some sources show a green pompom at the base of the plume.  The Voltigeur shako lacked the white chevrons worn by the Tirailleurs.

Some sources describe the gaiters as being cut in ‘Hessian’ style, but I’ve not seen this depicted in prints and paintings.

As in their predecessor regiments of the Tirailleurs-Chasseurs, some officers were seconded to the Voltigeurs from the Fusiliers-Chasseurs of the Middle Guard and would wear the uniform of their original regiment.  However, as with the Tirailleurs, a lot of officers were now directly commissioned into the Voltigeurs and would wear the same style of uniform as the rank-and-file, with officer distinctions of gold epaulettes, shako-cords and shako-lace.

In common with the other regiments of the Young Guard, the Voltigeurs were not authorised Eagles or flags.  In March 1812 the Voltigeurs were ordered to carry plain red fanions, without inscription, badge or device.  However, this order was once again casually ignored and fanions soon appeared in other colours such as chamois-yellow (the traditional colour of Voltigeurs) and featuring inscriptions and devices such as hunting-horns.  The 1er Voltigeurs had a particular ornate example, being a fringed red fanion featuring a wreathed ‘N’, surmounted by a crowned imperial eagle and surrounded by hunting-horn and grenade badges (see below).

The 13ème Voltigeurs meanwhile had a white fanion emblazoned with a gold hunting-horn and the number ’13’ and surrounded by more hunting-horn badges (see below).

Voltigeurs (1813-1815)

In April 1813 the Voltigeurs were ordered, along with the Tirailleurs, to adopt the simplified Bardin uniform, though again this conversion was probably not fully-realised until 1814.

As with the Tirailleurs, the sabre-briquet was withdrawn from the Voltigeurs at this time, though numerous prints and paintings show them still being used with Bardin uniforms.

The shako was also simplified at this time, with cords, plumes and NCOs’ shako-lace being abolished and replaced with a green spherical pompom.

When re-formed in 1815, the Voltigeurs appear to have worn exactly the same uniform as that prescribed for 1813-1814.

For my Voltigeurs I’ve used the AB Figures Young Guard Voltigeurs 1809-1813 figures.  The fanions are by Fighting 15s.

For Voltigeurs circa 1814-1815 you’ll need them with fringed epaulettes, but as mentioned above, AB Figures at present don’t make Young Guard figures of this style.  Again, if you’re not too fussy about the cap-badge, second cross-belt and sabre-briquet, you could use their 1813-1815 line infantry grenadier figures.

The Flanqueurs & Flanqueurs-Chasseurs (1811-1814)

When created in 1811, the Flanqueurs were probably the first regiment in the French Army to wear the Bardin style of coat, which was already being worn by various German allies and which featured very square lapels, closed all the way down to the waist and with no visible waistcoat.

The coat had green lapels, collar and shoulder-straps, piped yellow.  The cuffs were pointed and were either coloured green or red (the sources differ), with yellow piping.  Note that the plate on the right shows solid yellow collar and cuffs; this was apparently a mistake by the person who hand-coloured the print.  The tail-turnbacks were red with yellow piping and green hunting-horn badges as ornaments.  Buttons were brass.

Breeches were white and short black gaiters were worn, like the other Young Guard regiments.  However, some sources show the gaiters as being cut in ‘Hessian’ style and edged in yellow lace, with yellow tassels on the front, as shown in the print on the right.

Flanqueurs-Chasseurs skirmishing in front of a formed body of Flanqueurs-Grenadiers

The shako was of the usual Young Guard pattern, with brass edging to the peak, brass chin-scales and the brass Young Guard eagle badge with national cockade above.  Most sources do not show or describe shako-cords, though a few show white cords.  White shako-cords certainly seem to have been worn by drummers.  The pompom is described variously as a spherical or carrot-shaped pompom, coloured either green-over-yellow or yellow-over-green.  Another variant (shown here) was a mushroom-shaped pompom, being mainly green, with a yellow ‘stalk’.

Equipment was much the same as the other Young Guard regiments, namely two white cross-belts; one supporting the cartridge-pouch and the other supporting a sabre-briquet.  The badge on the cartridge-pouch is recorded as being a brass hunting-horn rather than the usual Young Guard eagle badge.  Information on the sword-knots is scant, though one print shows a white knot with a red tassel.

Drummers had the same uniform as the rank-and-file, though with chevrons of green & yellow ‘Imperial Lace’ running down each sleeve.  They also seem to have worn white shako-cords, as mentioned above.

Most officers were seconded from the Fusiliers-Chasseurs of the Middle Guard and wore the blue uniform of that regiment.  Only the most junior officers were commissioned directly into the Flanqueurs and these officers wore the green Flanqueur uniform.

Flanqueurs-Chasseurs skirmishing in front of a formed body of Flanqueurs-Grenadiers

As with the other Young Guard regiments, the uniform was simplified during 1813, with the removal of sabre-briquets and shako-cords.

The fanions of the Flanqueurs were ordered to be of plain yellow cloth.  However, it is highly likely that once again this order was casually ignored!

I’ve used the AB Figures Young Guard 1814 figures.  However, note that these are modelled with overall trousers and lack the sabre-briquet and second cross-belt.

The Flanqueurs-Grenadiers (1813-1814)

When this regiment was raised in 1813 it wore a uniform essentially identical to that of the Flanqueurs-Chasseurs and the main differences were in terms of headgear and equipment:

The shako had the white lace chevrons on the side that were also worn by the Fusiliers-Grenadiers and Tirailleurs.  The pompom is described variously as spherical or carrot-shaped and was coloured either red-over-yellow or yellow-over-red (sources are pretty evenly split).  Shako cords were red, though it seems that these were removed at some point, in line with the general attempt to simplify the uniforms.  The white chevrons seem to have remained on the shako.

The tail-turnbacks had white eagle badges as ornaments.

The Flanqueurs-Grenadiers were not issued with sabre-briquets and therefore only had one cross-belt, supporting the cartridge-pouch and bayonet frog.

Officers were mostly seconded from the Fusiliers-Grenadiers of the Middle Guard and wore the blue uniforms of that regiment.  Only the most junior officers of the regiment wore the green regimental uniform.

I’ve used the AB Figures Young Guard 1814 figures for the Flanqueurs-Grenadiers, with an officer from the Fusiliers-Grenadiers and a fanion by Fighting 15s.

Well that’s it for the Young Guard infantry!  I’ve still got the Imperial Guard cavalry and artillery to go…


Posted in 15mm Figures, Napoleon's Battles (Rules), Napoleonic French Army, Napoleonic Wars, Painted Units | 5 Comments

“La Garde au Feu!”: My 15mm French Imperial Guard (Part 3 – The Young Guard – Organisation)

In Part 1 of this series I looked at the infantry regiments of Napoleon’s Old Guard and in Part 2 I looked at the regiments of the Middle Guard (who as discussed in Part 2, were actually known as the Young Guard from 1806 to 1809 and as the ‘Old Soldiers of the Young Guard’ from 1809 to 1811).  In this article I’m going to look at the ‘New’ Young Guard.  The Young Guard became something of a monster organisation and I’ve got quite a few of them, so I’ll split this in to two parts – first the organisational history of the Young Guard and then the uniforms.

The ‘New’ Young Guard was created in 1809 with the creation of several new light infantry regiments – the 1er & 2ème Tirailleurs-Grenadiers, the 1er & 2ème Tirailleurs-Chasseurs, the 1er & 2ème Conscrits-Grenadiers and the 1er & 2ème Conscrits-Chasseurs.  Like the regiments of Guard Fusiliers, these were meant to be attached to the Old Guard Grenadiers and Chasseurs, to give them light infantry support.  However, like the Fusiliers they were in practice grouped within their own brigades and in 1809 both the Old and New regiments of the Young Guard formed their own division within the Imperial Guard Corps of the Army of Germany and received their baptism of fire at the Battle of Aspern-Essling:

Young Guard Division (1809) – Général de Division Curial

Brigade of Général de Brigade Roguet
1er Tirailleurs-Grenadiers (2 Bns)
1er Tirailleurs-Chasseurs (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade Gros
Fusiliers-Chasseurs (2 Bns)
Fusiliers-Grenadiers (2 Bns)

Curial’s Young Guard Division at Aspern-Essling in 1809: Gros’ Brigade is on the left, represented by the Fusiliers-Grenadiers. Roguet’s Brigade is on the right, represented by the Tirailleurs-Grenadiers. The skirmishers in front are Fusiliers-Chasseurs.

After the conclusion of the campaign in Austria, the Young Guard was sent to Spain, where they were mainly engaged in anti-partisan duties.  In 1810 the Young Guard was reorganised and expanded again, with the Tirailleurs-Grenadiers being retitled simply as Tirailleurs and the Tirailleurs-Chasseurs being retitled as Voltigeurs of the Guard.  Napoleon had never been happy with the title of Conscrits, so the 1er & 2ème Conscrits-Grenadiers became the 3ème & 4ème Tirailleurs and the 1er & 2ème Conscrits-Chasseurs became the 3ème & 4ème Voltigeurs.

In 1811 the Young Guard was further expanded by the addition of the 5ème & 6ème Tirailleurs and the 5ème & 6ème Voltigeurs, as well as a whole new regiment raised from the sons and nephews of foresters, entitled the Flanqueurs of the Guard.  Additionally, a corps of Imperial Guard Pupilles was created for the sons of soldiers killed in action, as well as an Imperial Guard branch of the French National Guard.  These would provide the Guard with good-quality recruits – something that would become crucial in 1813.

In 1812 the Young Guard and Middle Guard formed the 1st and 2nd Divisions of the Imperial Guard Corps as it marched into Russia:

1st Guard Division (1812) – Général de Division Delaborde

Brigade of Général de Brigade Berthezène
4ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
4ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
5ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade Lanusse
5ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
6ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
6ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)

2nd Guard Division (1812) – Général de Division Roguet

Brigade of Général de Brigade Lanabère
1er Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
1er Voltigeurs (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade Boyeldieu
Fusiliers-Chasseurs (2 Bns)
Fusiliers-Grenadiers (2 Bns)
Flanqueurs (2 Bns)

The Young Guard in Russia, 1812: Delaborde’s 1st Division is on the left and Roguet’s 2nd Division (which includes the Middle Guard and the green-coated Flanqueurs) is on the right.

The Guard was practically wiped out in Russia, though a new Guard was created in remarkable time from the pitiful handful of survivors, as well as those Young Guard regiments and depots in France and Spain who had not been sent to Russia  Drafts were also drawn from the National Guard and Pupilles, as well as volunteers from Line regiments and the best of the new draft of conscripts.

The recreation of the Guard was nothing short of miraculous and by late February 1813, the Old Guard and Middle Guard had been completely reconstituted (all except for the 3ème Grenadiers à Pied, who were never reformed), while the Tirailleurs and Voltigeurs of the Young Guard each had seven new regiments!  This force took to the field in April 1813 and while not the near-superhuman elite corps of old, the Guard still provided a solid core for Napoleon’s Grande Armée during his victories at Lützen and Bautzen.

1st Guard Division (Lützen, 1st May 1813) – Général de Division Dumoustier

Brigade of Général de Brigade Berthezène
Fusiliers-Chasseurs (2 Bns)
Fusiliers-Grenadiers (2 Bns)
6ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
7ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade Lanusse
1er Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
2ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade Tindal
1er Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
6ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
7ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)

The newly-rebuilt Young Guard Division, as it appeared at the Battle of Lützen, 1st May 1813.

Further reinforcements for the Young Guard arrived after the victory at Lützen. On 15th May 1813 the Young Guard was reorganised into two divisions and fought in this organisation at Bautzen on 20-21st May 1813:

1st Young Guard Division (Bautzen) – Général de Division Dumoustier

Brigade of Général de Brigade Mouton-Duvernet (Middle Guard)
Fusiliers-Chasseurs (2 Bns)
Fusiliers-Grenadiers (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade Tindal
1er Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
2ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade Lanusse
3ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
6ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
7ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)

2nd Young Guard Division (Bautzen) – Général de Division Barrois

Brigade of Général de Brigade Rottembourg
1er Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
2ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade Berthezène
3ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
6ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
7ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)

The expanded Young Guard as it appeared at the Battle of Bautzen, 20-21 May 1813. Dumoustier’s 1st Division is on the left and includes the Middle Guard (Fusilier) Brigade, as well as two brigades of Voltigeurs. Barrois’ 2nd Division is on the right, comprising two brigades of Tirailleurs.

Expansion of the Young Guard continued through the Summer Armistice of 1813 and by the re-commencement of hostilities in August 1813 the Voltigeurs and Tirailleurs were fielding thirteen regiments apiece.  The Flanqueurs, who had been absolutely wiped out in Russia, were replaced by two new regiments, the Flanqueurs-Grenadiers and the Flanqueurs-Chasseurs.  The Middle and Young Guard were now formed into four Young Guard Divisions and the Imperial Guard formed a full third of the entire army!

After the Battle of Dresden in September 1813, the Fusiliers-Grenadiers and Fusiliers-Chasseurs of the Middle Guard were split off to form a 2nd Old Guard Division under General Curial, being grouped with the Vélites of Turin, the Vélites of Florence, the short-lived Polish Guard Battalion and a battalion each of Saxon and Westphalian Royal Guards.  The four Young Guard Divisions were then grouped into two Young Guard Corps and fought using this organisation at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813:

I Young Guard Corps (October 1813) – Marshal Oudinot

1st Young Guard Division – Général de Division Pacthod

Brigade of Général de Brigade Lacoste
1er Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
2ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
3ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade Coloumy
7ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
11ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
11ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)

(N.B. Some sources show the 1st Division to be divided into three brigades, with the third brigade commanded by General Gros)

3rd Young Guard Division – Général de Division Decouz

Brigade of Général de Brigade Boyer de Rebeval
5ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
6ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
7ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
8ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade Pelet
9ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
10ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)
12ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)

II Young Guard Corps (October 1813) – Marshal Motier

2nd Young Guard Division – Général de Division Barrois

Brigade of Général de Brigade Poret de Morvan
1er Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
2ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
3ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade (unknown)
4ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
5ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
6ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)

4th Young Guard Division – Général de Division Roguet

Brigade of Général de Brigade Flamand
Flanqueurs-Chasseurs (2 Bns)
Flanqueurs-Grenadiers (2 Bns)
7ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade Marguet
8ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
9ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
10ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)

The massively-expanded Young Guard organised for the Battle of Leipzig: Oudinot’s 1st Young Guard Corps is on the left and Mortier’s 2nd Young Guard Corps is on the right. Note the newly-raised Flanqueur-Grenadiers (in green coats with yellow flag) and the Flanqueur-Chasseurs in the skirmish line. Note however, that I got bored painting Voltigeurs and Tirailleurs, so have sneaked in the 1809-uniformed Tirailleurs-Grenadiers to replace a brigade of Tirailleurs and the Sailors of the Guard to replace a brigade of Voltigeurs. Note that the Middle Guard had now been removed and grouped with the Old Guard.

Expansion of the Young Guard continued despite the defeats of the Autumn Campaign, the disaster of Leipzig and the associated losses.  The 14ème & 15ème Regiments of Tirailleurs and Voltigeurs were formed during this period from the remnants of King Joseph Napoleon’s former Spanish Royal Guard, though along with 13ème Regiments, the these seem to have remained within the Réserve de Paris.

In December 1813 and with the Allies about to invade France, Napoleon once again reorganised the Guard.  The Middle Guard Fusilier Regiments and Vélite Battalions, along with the two Flanqueur Regiments under Général de Brigade Gros, were grouped with the Old Guard as a Mobile Reserve under Marshal Mortier, while the bulk of the Voltigeur and Tirailleur Regiments were grouped into six independent Young Guard Divisions:

1st Young Guard (1st Voltigeur) Division (1814) – Général de Division Meunier
1er, 2ème, 3ème & 4ème Voltigeurs (two brigades)

2nd Young Guard (2nd Voltigeur) Division (1814) – Général de Division Decouz
5ème, 6ème, 7ème & 8ème Voltigeurs (two brigades)

3rd Young Guard (3rd Voltigeur) Division (1814) – Général de Division Boyer de Rebeval
9ème, 10ème, 11ème & 12ème Voltigeurs (two brigades)

4th Young Guard (1st Tirailleur) Division (1814) – Général de Division Barrois
1er, 2ème, 3ème & 4ème Tirailleurs (two brigades)

5th Young Guard (2nd Tirailleur) Division (1814) – Général de Division Rottembourg
5ème, 6ème, 7ème & 8ème Tirailleurs (two brigades)

6th Young Guard (3rd Tirailleur) Division (1814) – Général de Division Roguet
9ème, 10ème, 11ème & 12ème Tirailleurs (two brigades)

These organisations didn’t last long and the changes in commanders and organisations are too numerous to list here.  A Young Guard Corps of two divisions (Meunier’s and Decouz’s Divisions, with Curial replacing Decouz when that general was killed in March 1814) was formed under Marshal Ney in early 1814 and fought as part of Napoleon’s main army, though the organisation was fluid.  For example, Meunier’s Division for a time included the 1er & 2ème Tirailleurs from Barrois’ Division.  Barrois’ and Roguet’s Divisions meanwhile were sent to Maison’s Army of the North in Belgium, while the other two divisions (or elements thereof) were passed from pillar to post throughout the 1814 Campaign.

By the time of Napoleon’s surrender, the 16ème to 19ème Regiments of Tirailleurs and Voltigeurs had also been formed, but these do not appear to have taken to the field, remaining instead within the Réserve de Paris and sending reinforcements forward to the other regiments in the field.  However, by the end of the Campaign of France, every last regiment was being pushed into the fight and even battalions of the Pupilles were employed on the front line as infantry.

Young Guard Voltigeurs, 1814.

With Napoleon’s return to power in 1815, the Young Guard was reformed, but was limited to just a few regiments of Tirailleurs and Voltigeurs.  The Young Guard Division that accompanied Napoleon to Waterloo in 1815 was formed from just two regiments of each:

Young Guard Division (1815) – Général de Division Barrois

Brigade of Général de Brigade Chartrand
1er Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
1er Voltigeurs (2 Bns)

Brigade of Général de Brigade Guye
3ème Tirailleurs (2 Bns)
3ème Voltigeurs (2 Bns)

In the next part I’ll look at the uniforms for each part of the Young Guard.

Posted in 15mm Figures, Napoleon's Battles (Rules), Napoleonic French Army, Napoleonic Wars, Painted Units | Leave a comment

The Battle of Neumarkt 1809 Refought (15mm Napoleon’s Battles)

Last week I posted my scenario for the Battle of Neumarkt (also known as the Battle of Neumarkt-Sankt Veit), which was a rare Austrian victory from the 1809 Danube Campaign.  On Saturday we got to play it at the Carmarthen Old Guard.

The game was originally planned in order to re-acquaint my good mate Andy with the rules, as it’s been some years since he last played them.  But in the event we also acquired Stephen, Chris, Richard and Alan as extra players – none of whom had played Napoleon’s Battles rules before (or indeed Napoleonics in some cases)!  The roles were soon divvied up – Andy would take the role of Hiller the Austrian C-in-C, while Richard took Reuss-Plauen’s 1st Column and Vincents’ Advance Guard and Alan took Kottulinksy’s 2nd Column.  On the Franco-Bavarian side, Chris took the role of Bessières and did most of the heavy lifting, while I took Jacquinot’s cavalry on the right flank.

My apologies once again for my poor photography (the lighting in the club isn’t great and my mobile phone struggles to cope with it), but thanks to Chris W and Lewys for the extra photos! 🙂


Above: The scenario map, showing the starting positions for both armies and reinforcement entry-points for the Austrians.  Kottulisnky’s 2nd Column had one more infantry brigade (Hohenfeld’s) and some artillery following him at Point C, plus Kienmayer’s II Reserve Korps, which was a couple of hours’ march behind him.  One of Kottulinsky’s brigades (Weissenwolff’s) had got lost and would arrive at Point B.  Reuss-Plauen’s 1st Column had another infantry brigade (Froehauf’s) due to arrive at Point D.  Hoffmeister’s 3rd Column was due to arrive at Point A.  Lastly, Radetzky’s Flank Guard was being seriously delayed by Bavarian dragoons, though would eventually arrive in the Franco-Bavarian rear at Point E.

Above: The Battle of Neumarkt as it appeared on our table (the troops are in their positions at the end of Turn 1).  I’d made over 100 trees in the last month and it STILL wasn’t quite enough!  The high ground of the Leonberg is in the foreground, the Austrians are on the left, the French are on the right and the Bavarians are hidden amoung the trees along the ridge in the centre.  Someone had lost the steeple for my model church, so I used a thatched farmhouse for the Abbey of St Vitus. 🙁

Above: Marshal Bessières establishes his command post near the Abbey of St Vitus.

Above: At the hamlet of Oberscherm, the Bavarian 13th Infantry Regiment (IR #13) shift their position to the left, seeking the cover of some woodland.  Captain Dobl deploys his 12-pounders to the right of IR #13.  Dobl’s heavy guns would dominate the Scherm valley in the coming battle.

Above: To the east, the Bavarian 3rd Infantry Regiment Prinz Karl (IR #3), bolstered by the 6th Light Infantry Battalion (represented here by a Bavarian Light Infantry unit), also took shelter along the edge of the woods on the slopes of the Leonberg.  Caspers’ 6-pounder Light Mounted Battery was brought down from its isolated position atop the Leonberg, to IR #3’s position, where it would hopefully be safe from marauding Austrian cavalry.  The highly dispersed nature of the Bavarian deployment would give Bessières and Wrede a command-and-control headache in the coming battle, but then the Austrians also had their command-and-control problems to contend with.

Above: Back at Neumarkt, Beckers’ Bavarian Brigade, consisting of the 6th Infantry Regiment Herzog Wilhelm (IR #6) and the 7th Infantry Regiment Löwenstein (IR #7), are already marching forward to reinforce Wrede’s forward position along the ridge.  Wrede directs these men to support IR #13 at Obserscherm.

Above: On the Bavarian’s right flank, near the hamlet of Strass and guarding approaches to the western bridges, is Jacquinot’s French cavalry brigade.  This brigade was very strong and for game purposes is treated as a division.

Above: To the rear of Neumarkt is Molitor’s French infantry division and Marulaz’s French cavalry division.  Molitor’s division was given orders to march east to the bridge at Kinming (visible in the distance on the left); it was then to deploy onto the Leonberg, to support the Bavarian IR #3 and deny that dominating feature to the enemy.  Marulaz’s cavalry meanwhile, would cross the bridge at Neumarkt and would march up onto the ridge, to generally support Molitor’s and Wrede’s infantry.

Above: Near the hamlet of Teising, to the west of Neumarkt, Preysing’s Bavarian cavalry brigade, attached to Marulaz, sits patiently waiting for orders.  Marulaz initially intended to take his two French brigades across the river and then come back to fetch Preysing, but no plan survives contact with the enemy and Preysing would spend the entire battle in reserve, north of the River Rott.

Above: The sound of Dobl’s heavy guns opening fire announces the arrival of the Austrians!  The Hungarian 60th Infantry Regiment Ignaz Gyulai (IR #60) had been split off from Bianchi’s brigade (Reuss-Plauen’s 1st Column) to deal with Bavarian skirmishers in the woods near Freiling, between the 1st and 2nd Column’s lines of march and has become separated from the rest of Reuss-Plauen’s column.  Just visible behind the trees in the foreground is the Austrian 8th Hussar Regiment Kienmayer, which is marching at the head of Kottilinsky’s 2nd Column and is now coming under fire from the Bavarian 12-pounders at Obserscherm.

Above: On the Austrian right, the head of Reuss-Plauen’s 1st Column, consisting of the remainder of Bianchi’s infantry brigade, deploys near the hamlet of Hundham (confusingly there is another Hundham on the River Rott).  Fröhauff’s infantry brigade will also soon arrive on the road behind Bianchi.  Just visible through the trees is Vincent’s Advance Guard, consisting of the 6th Chevauxleger Regiment Rosenberg, which is advancing on the high ground of the Leonberg.  Somewhat controversially, Hiller has taken the decision to personally lead IR #60 out of the woods, which leaves the individual column commanders to act on their own initiative.  Vincent manages to get his cavalry moving, but poor Reuss-Plauen struggles to get his infantry to advance in the face of long-range fire from Caspers’ Bavarian artillery.

Above: Although low in numbers, the Bavarian left flank-guard takes a steady toll on Reuss-Plauen’s white-coated infantry as they struggle to close the range.

Above: Vincent leads the 6th Chevauxlegers along the woodland road and up onto the Leonberg.  His aim is to cut the Bavarian left wing off from reinforcement.

Above: The situation at approximately 0930hrs.

Above: Molitor’s French infantry, with a battery of horse artillery in support, march east to the bridge at Kinming.

Above: Marulaz’s French cavalry emerge from Neumarkt and deploy into open ground near the Abbey of St Vitus.  Marulaz heads back to find Preysing’s Bavarian cavalry, but the sound of trumpets makes him rush back to the Abbey, just in time to see Vincent’s white-coated cavalry emerge from the woods of the Leonberg!

Above: Reuss-Plauen’s infantry (now reinforced) continue to inch forward in the face of stiff Bavarian fire from the tree-line.

Above: Hiller meanwhile, is reliving his days as a brigadier, leading IR #60 instead of commanding the army!

Above: In the centre, Kottulinsky has deployed the 7th Grenze Infantry Regiment Brod into skirmish order and assisted by a battery of 6-pounder cavalry-guns, is starting to inflict losses on the Bavarian IR #13.  In the background, Hohenfeld’s infantry brigade has arrived to reinforce the attack on Oberscherm.

Above: However, Dobl’s Bavarian 12-pounders are taking a steady toll on the Grenzer.

Above: Another view of Hohenfeld’s arrival.

Above: Suddenly, Kottulinsky does something rather rash…

Above: Seeing the approaching Bavarian columns, Kottulisky orders the Kienmayer Hussars to attack them!  The Bavarian IR #6 calmly forms square and prepares to receive cavalry…

Above: Somewhat astonishingly, Jacquinot’s cavalry, despite having re-deployed to face the threat posed by Kottulinsky, seem disinclined to counter-charge the Austrian hussars!

Above: The whole Franco-Bavarian army watches in amazement as Jacquinot remains motionless in the face of the Austrian charge…

Above: Shot to bits by the combined fire of two Bavarian infantry regiments, the Kienmayer Hussars make a ragged charge on IR #6 before being driven off to the jeers of the Bavarian infantry.  Finally, Jacquinot at last draws his sabre and leads the 1st Chasseurs forward to glory against the disordered and weakened Kienmayer Hussars.  Beyond the hussars lies a cavalry battery, a regiment of Grenzer deployed in skirmish order and a brigade of infantry still deployed in march column; surely nothing could stop the glorious ride of Jacquinot’s Chasseurs…?!

Sure enough, the hussars were smashed by Jacquinot’s charge, but Jacquinot then lost control of his battle-crazed troopers, who then launched an uncontrolled charge into the cavalry battery.  Having sabred the gunners, the Chasseurs then milled about in confusion as Hohenfeld’s infantry and two batteries of 12-pounders deployed only a few hundred yards away.  Facing the immediate prospect of seeing his cavalry shredded by close-range Austrian fire, Jacquinot ordered his cavalry to save themselves and flee for the safety of the 2nd Chasseurs, back at Strass!

Above: The rest of Jacquinot’s brigade jeer the 1st Chasseurs as they flee back to their lines… This whole sorry episode had succeeded in eliminating a regiment of Austrian cavalry and a battery of guns, but the French had lost three of their seven Free Roll markers, all to absolutely no effect!

Above: On Kottulinsky’s left, Weissenwolff’s infantry brigade has arrived on the wrong road at Nieder-Bergkirchen, separated by about a mile from Kottulinsky’s main body, thus giving Hiller and Kottulinsky a fresh command-and-control headache… However, while in march column and on road, Weissenwolf can press on without being activated by a general, so he presses on toward Strass.

Above: Kottulinsky gallops over to take control of Weissenwolff’s brigade and use it to threaten the Bavarian right flank (and Jacquinot’s cavalry) at Strass.  Hiller also rides over to this sector to find Hoffmeister’s 3rd Column and direct it against the Franco-Bavarian right flank.

Above: Having weathered the storm of shot from the tree-line, Bianchi’s brigade finally starts to get to grips with their Bavarian tormentors, as Fröhauff’s brigade moves through the woods to envelop the Bavarian left flank.

Above: On the Leonberg, Vincent’s 6th Chevauxlegers rally following a sortie against Marulaz’s cavalry at the Abbey.  For a moment, it seemed as though Vincent was going to catch the French cavalry in column as they emerged from Neumarkt.  However, having emerged from the woods and deployed into line, Vincent hesitated, giving Marulaz time to deploy the 23rd Chasseurs into line and make the first charge!  The Austrians had the slope in their favour, but the quality of the French cavalry, allied to Marulaz’s decisive aggression, quickly routed the Austrians and sent them reeling back up the Leonberg – all except for Vincent himself, who was captured in the melee!

However, the French have become disordered in the woods, and as they emerged from the treeline they are charged by the rallied Chevauxlegers!  This time the combat is more even and both sides withdrew to lick their wounds.  However, the Austrians have suffered heavy casualties during the running combats and are now close to breaking point.

Above: But what’s this?!  It appears to be a fresh body of troops arriving from the south and emerging from the woods behind the French right flank… Hoffmeister’s 3rd Column has arrived!

Above: Hoffmeister’s 3rd Column consists of the 8th Hussar Regiment Liechtenstein, the 6th Grenze Infantry Regiment Warasdin-St Georg, a cavalry half-battery and Hofeneck’s Hungarian infantry brigade.

Above: Alarmed by the appearance of enemy cavalry to his rear, Jacquinot frantically turns the 1st Chasseurs around to face the new threat.

Above: Hoffmeister is already close to linking up with Weissenwolff’s brigade at Strass.  Only Jacquinot’s cavalry stands in their way.

Above: To make matters even worse for Wrede’s Bavarians Kienmayer’s II Reserve Korps has arrived (early)!

Above: The situation at around 1200hrs.

Above: Kottulinsky’s 12-pounder position batteries are starting to make their presence felt on the Bavarian infantry, forcing the Bavarians to pull back from their forward positions between Strass and Oberscherm and leaving the Bavarian 13th Regiment isolated once more.  Kottulinsky’s battery is about to be reinforced by two more 12-pounder position batteries and 6-pounder cavalry guns from Kienmayer’s Reserve Korps.


Above: With the Bavarian infantry retiring and with the French cavalry threat diminished, Kottulinsky orders Hohenfeld’s infantry forward to link up with Weissenwolf at Strass and to push the enemy back further.


Above: Kienmayer deploys his reserves.  Clary’s dragoon brigade stands ready to counter any unexpected attack by Jacquinot’s cavalry, while D’Aspré’s elite grenadier brigade moves up to assault the Bavarian infantry.


Above: Back on the slopes of the Leonberg, Reuss-Plauen finally gets to grips with the pesky Bavarian light infantry!  Bianchi’s infantry, having weathered the storm of Bavarian fire, finally open up on the Bavarians with a devastating volley that disorders their line.

Above:  Seizing the moment, Reuss-Plauen draws his sword and leads Fröhauff’s brigade forward to assault the Bavarian left flank while they are still reeling from Bianchi’s volley.  In the background, the Rosenberg Chevauxlegers make yet another charge against the 23rd Chasseurs.

Above: A few minutes later, Reuss-Plauen’s white-coats cheer themselves hoarse as the defeated Bavarians flee for the safety of Neumarkt, leaving Caspers’ guns behind!  On the Leonberg, the Rosenberg Chevauxlegers have once again fought the French cavalry to a standstill and again rally back on the peak of the hill.

Above: However, a new and much more powerful threat has arrived to take on Reuss-Plauen; Molitor’s French infantry division.

Above: Outnumbered two-to-one, Reuss-Plauen’s men sell their lives dearly and inflict heavy losses on the French 37th and 67th Infantry Regiments.  However, a charge led personally by Molitor himself, breaks Fröhauff’s brigade and an assault by the fresh French 16th Infantry Regiment finally ends Bianchi’s resistance by 1400hrs.  The French 2nd Infantry Regiment meanwhile, finally drives the Rosenberg Chevauxlegers off the Leonberg.  Reuss-Plauen manages to escape by the skin of his teeth and seeks shelter with the Hungarian 60th Infantry Regiment at Oberscherm, which is now the only part of the 1st Column left intact (albeit demoralised by the catastrophic losses on the right flank).

Above: Even though the battle for the Leonberg has been won by the Franco-Bavarian army, Bessières has no time to rest on his laurels.  Most critically, Preysing advises him that Bavarian dragoon patrols have been fighting a rearguard action against a strong Austrian force that will arrive within the hour at the village of Rott, on the north bank of the River Rott (Point E)!  At once, Bessières orders the rallied Bavarian IR #3 to prepare Neumarkt for defence and orders Molitor to likewise withdraw to defend the town against this new threat.

On the opposite flank, Hoffmeister has deployed his column for battle and the 8th Liechtenstein Hussars are already clashing with Jacquinot and the weakened 1st Chasseurs.

Above: The Liechtenstein Hussars make a brave show of it, but once again the quality of the French cavalry tips the balance and the hussars are thrown back in disorder.  Almost immediately, the supporting Austrian cavalry guns open up on the Chasseurs and inflict further casualties on the French horsemen.  The 1st Chasseurs are now dangerously close to breaking and Jacquinot considers his options for withdrawal.  Passing on his concerns to Wrede and Bessières, they agree that the time has now come (possibly belatedly) to withdraw to the west bank of the Rott!

Above: Even though their cavalry has been beaten off, Hoffmeister’s infantry advance to roll up the enemy flank.

Above: Back in the centre of the battle at Oberscherm, the valiant Bavarian 13th Infantry Regiment has finally been crushed by the combined fire of the 7th Grenze, 60th Infantry and several batteries of 12-pounders.  Dobl’s Bavarian 12-pounder battery, finding itself alone, quickly limber up their guns and make for the safety of the Bavarian 7th Infantry, behind Obsercherm.

Seizing the moment, the 7th Grenze rush forward, but are charged by Jacquinot’s waiting 2nd Chasseurs!  The Chasseurs don’t have it all their own way, as their charge is subjected to a hail of fire from Weissenwolff, Hohenfeld and the Grenzer.  However, the skirmishing Grenzer are easy meat for the French cavalry and are destroyed.

Above: However, the 2nd Chasseurs, like the 1st Chasseurs before them, now run out of steam and find themselves milling about, right in front of a horde of white-coats…  Once again, Jacquinot orders the horsemen to save themselves and make for the bridge at Hundham!  Now it’s the 2nd Chasseurs’ turn to endure the jeers and cat-calls of their comrades as they flee for safety… With both his regiments severely depleted, Jacquinot orders a general withdrawal and the 1st Chasseurs also make for the bridge.

Above: However, the Liechtenstein Hussars have rallied and are looking for blood.  Hoffmeister orders them forward once again against the 1st Chasseurs…

Above: In the centre, Hiller again has his sabre in hand as he relives his glory days as a brigadier… This time he’s leading Clary’s dragoon brigade and he inserts them through a gap in the woodland, aiming to cut off the Bavarian retreat.  The Bavarian 7th Regiment forms square in reaction to the cavalry threat and Dobl’s 12-pounders go into action once again as they open fire on the Austrian dragoons.  Marulaz meanwhile, brings one of his cavalry brigades up to oppose Clary.

Above: However, forming square to defend against Clary’s dragoons only exposes the Bavarians to assault by D’Aspré’s grenadiers.  The Bavarian 6th Regiment is withdrawing in good order and can’t hope to save the 7th Regiment from what is about to happen…

Above: The situation at around 1400hrs.  Sadly, as always seems to happens, that was where we had to leave it… Just as it was getting REALLY exciting and the players were getting a firm grip of the rules… 🙁

So would the Liechtenstein Hussars crush Jacquinot before he could escape across the bridge?

Would the Bavarians manage to withdraw safely back to Neumarkt?  Or would they be crushed between the hammer of Clary’s dragoons and the anvil of D’Aspré’s grenadiers?

Would Preysing do anything…? (In fact I was going to allow Wrede to take command of Preysing if Marulaz remained too busy – they were ordinarily part of Wrede’s division, but had been detached to Marulaz on this occasion).

Would Molitor be able to reach the western bank of the Rott before Radetzky arrived? Or would he have to fight his way across the river?

Radetzky’s flank-guard had already rolled for early arrival (1 on a D10 to arrive an hour earlier than planned, like Kienmayer did) and had failed.  On the next turn it could arrive 30 minutes early on a 1-3, so it could potentially seize the bridge at Kinming before Molitor had a chance to return back over it.  It could then arrive on its booked time (1500hrs) on a roll of 1-6, or 1-8 for every turn thereafter.  Radetzky’s column was much the same as Hoffmeister’s – a regiment of cavalry, a regiment of Grenze, a brigade of infantry and a half-battery of cavalry guns, so while perhaps not strong enough to assault Molitor’s division en masse, it was more than strong enough to defend a bridge and generally make an extreme pain in the arse in itself…


The players were unanimous in that while neither side had completed any scenario objectives, the writing was on the wall for Bessières’ command and it was clear that the Austrians had won the day, despite heavier losses.  It was unlikely that the Bavarian 7th Regiment and Dobl’s Battery could be saved and it also seemed likely that Jacquinot’s cavalry, who had suffered heavy casualties, would be crushed.  It was also likely that the Bavarian 6th Regiment would be overwhelmed, or at the very least suffer heavy losses before it reached the safety of Neumarkt.

Of the rest of the Franco-Bavarian army, Preysing’s Bavarian cavalry, the French 2nd Infantry, 16th Infantry, 3rd/19th Chasseurs and horse battery remained intact.  Caspers’ Bavarian battery was also intact, despite having been routed alongside the 3rd Infantry, and was able to recover its guns thanks to the efforts of Molitor’s infantry.  The 23rd Chasseurs had taken light casualties during repeated clashes with the Rosenberg Chevauxlegers and the 37th & 67th Infantry and 3rd Bavarian Infantry had suffered heavy casualties during the fighting with Reuss-Plauen’s column.  The Bavarian 13th Infantry was the only allied unit to have been driven from the field.  Crucially, Bessières had also expended all his free roll markers.

On the Austrian side, most of the army remained intact, aside from Clary’s Dragoons, Hohenfeld’s infantry and the Liechtenstein Hussars, who had taken light casualties.  The Rosenberg Chevauxlegers had suffered heavy casualties.  The 7th Grenze, Bianchi’s brigade, Fröhauff’s brigade, the Kienmayer Hussars and a cavalry battery had been rendered hors de combat and Vincent had been captured.  Reuss-Plauen’s remaining regiment (IR #60) was incapable of taking offensive action due to the losses suffered by the rest of the 1st Column.  The Austrians had only used three of their free roll markers and had three left in reserve, which were probably about to be deployed to increase the chances of an early arrival for Radetzky!

So a bloody victory for the Austrians that potentially might have become a decisive one if Radetzky were to arrive in time to cut off the Franco-Bavarian retreat…

In the post-match analysis, it was clear that both sides were in a difficult position right from the outset, with divisional commanders being unable, due to their restricted command-radii, to command their entire division at once.  Experienced players would probably have spent the first few turns bringing isolated units ‘back to the fold’ (e.g. Reuss-Plauen could have spent a turn or two bringing IR#60 over to the right flank, while Marulaz could have spent a turn bringing in Preysing and Kottulinsky could have gone to round up Weissenwolff.  The C-in-Cs could also perhaps have spent more time ensuring that their divisional commanders were activated… However, all the players were new to the game and valuable lessons were learned for next time! 🙂

My thanks to the players, who certainly seemed to enjoy it, despite the steep learning curve!  The interest is high for some more Napoleonics and perhaps (fingers crossed!) Aspern-Essling as a Christmas game!  In the meantime I’ll try to arrange a scenario without as many technical challenges as this one! 🙂

Thanks also to Richard for providing extra roads and trees.


The models are all from my own collection.  They’re mostly AB Figures painted by me, though my good mate Gareth Beamish painted a few of the units in all three armies.  The Bavarian line infantry and artillery are actually by Battle Honours (sculpted by Tony Barton before he went on to create AB Figures) and the Bessières figure is actually a re-purposed Marshal Murat figure by Sho Boki.

The buildings are a mixture of home-made card buildings by Gareth Beamish and resin buildings by The Drum.

The rubber roads and rivers are by TSS.

The trees (aside from the ones provided by Richard) were made by me from Woodland Scenics plastic armatures, based on Warbases MDF discs.  Most were foliated using Woodland Scenics ‘Foliage Clusters’, while some had Woodland Scenics ‘Foliage’ applied (which is like a sort of miniature camouflage netting).

Austrian infantry trap Marulaz’s cavalry in the streets of Neumarkt

Posted in 15mm Figures, Games, Napoleon's Battles (Rules), Napoleonic Wars, Scenarios | 2 Comments

More 15mm Cold War Poles

Of all the pages on this blog, one of the most-viewed is the page on my 15mm Cold War Polish Infantry.  This tiny range of lovely models by Polish company Oddzial Osmy is available in the UK from Magister Millitum and I’m very pleased to report that they’ve added a new pack of 9K111 Fagot (AT-4 spigot) anti-tank missile teams (pictured), so we can finally upgrade our 9M14 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger) teams! 🙂

The pack apparently includes ‘6 figures’ – I assume that this means four crewmen and two missile launchers, for a total of two teams per pack; the same as the Sagger pack.  I’ll confirm when my pack arrives.

Posted in 15mm Figures, Battlefront: First Echelon, Cold War - Warsaw Pact Armies | 1 Comment

The Battle of Neumarkt, 24th April 1809 (A Scenario for ‘Napoleon’s Battles’)

Bavarian Light Infantry

We’ve got an all-day wargaming session coming up at The Carmarthen Old Guard, so I thought I’d run a small (ish) historical battle, the Battle of Neumarkt (also known as Neumarkt-Sankt Veit) from my favourite Napoleonic campaign, the Danube Campaign of 1809.  It’s also a favourite of my mate Andy, so I thought he’d appreciate it.

This scenario is designed for Napoleon’s Battles, which is a ‘grand-tactical’ rule-set, where each tactical unit represents a brigade or large regiment and the figure ratio is roughly 1:100.  This scenario could easily be converted to other rule-sets of the same scope, such as Age of Eagles.

Historical Background

Napoleon with Bavarian troops at the Battle of Abensberg

Following Napoleon’s victory at the Battle of Abensberg on 20th April 1809, Feldmarschalleutnant (FML) Johann von Hiller‘s left wing of the Austrian Army (consisting of his own VI Korps, Archduke Ludwig’s V Korps and Kienmayer’s II Reserve Korps) was forced to retreat south-eastward toward Landshut and its vital bridge across the River Isar, thus splitting the wing away from Archduke Charles’ main army in the Danube Valley.  Despite a chaotic retreat, Hiller’s command succeeded in reaching relative safety behind the Isar.

However, the river-line didn’t hold for long and Napoleon’s army seized Landshut on 21st April, forcing Hiller’s demoralised command into a further retreat to the line of the River Inn and further away from Archduke Charles, which was forming up to attack Marshal Davout’s isolated III Corps near Regensburg (known as ‘Ratisbon’ to the French).  Panic started to get the better of parts of Hiller’s command and Archduke Ludwig’s V Korps in particular, had largely lost all cohesion and was streaming back in disorganised groups.


Thankfully for Hiller, Napoleon left the pursuit of the Austrian left wing to Marshal Bessières and instead turned his attention to the relief of the beleaguered Davout, who was already engaged with Archduke Charles at Eggmühl.  Bessières was given a mixed force consisting of Marulaz’s French Light Cavalry Division, Wrede’s 2nd Bavarian Division (which included Preysing’s cavalry brigade), Molitor’s French Infantry Division and Jacquinot’s French Light Cavalry Brigade.  However, despite his considerable strength in light cavalry, Bessières was no Murat and conducted the pursuit lethargically.  Thus, Hiller was able to reach the Inn relatively unmolested and was able to bring some sort of order back to his fragmented command and was already making plans to go back onto the offensive and to link up with Archduke Charles and/or Jellacic’s command at Munich.


Hiller and Archduke Ludwig received a message from the Emperor during the night of the 22nd/23rd, advising them that Archduke Charles was intending to launch an offensive against Davout at Eggmühl on the 22nd.  Hiller was determined to recover his reputation and announced his intention to attack Bessières on the 24th and re-cross the Isar on the 25th.  Hiller was not to know that Archduke Charles’ offensive had never even started, that he had been defeated by the ‘anvil’ of Davout and the ‘Hammer’ of Napoleon and that he was now retreating through Regensburg to the North bank of the Danube…

Hiller set about issuing a very complex set of orders for the attack, of the type that Austrian generals particularly excelled at… This blizzard of instructions did succeed in reorganising and solidifying his shaky army, but the complex plan did largely strip divisional commanders of the ability to use their own initiative in achieving the objective.  It’s also noticeable that Archduke Ludwig, commanding the VI Korps was seemingly by-passed, with all formations reporting directly to Hiller’s headquarters.  Perhaps this was due to Ludwig’s loss of control during the retreat?  Or perhaps Ludwig was ‘ill’ (he would retire due to ‘illness’ a few weeks later)?


As mentioned above, the Austrians had a great love of over-complex plans and for reasons only known to themselves, would regularly rearrange perfectly good corps, divisions and brigades into ‘columns’.  the 1st Column consisted of V Korps troops under the command of FML Reuss-Plauen and would advance on the right, screened by an advance guard under FML Vincent and a flank-guard under FML Radetzky.  The 2nd Column consisted of VI Korps Troops under the command of FML Kottulinsky and would be in the centre, pushing up the main road behind an advance guard commanded by Generalmajor (GM) Mesko.  The 3rd Column consisted of VI Korps troops under GM Hoffmeister would advance on the left, screened by the advance guard of GM Nordmann.


FML Kienmayer’s II Reserve Korps (actually a divisional-sized force consisting of a Grenadier Brigade, a Dragoon Brigade and the reserve 12pdr batteries) would follow in general reserve.

Somewhat inevitably, the plan started to unravel from the start and the army started its march by crossing the Inn an hour late at 0300hrs instead of the planned 0200hrs.  further delay was then caused by Mesko’s advance guard, who were still in their beds when the 2nd Column arrived at their camp!  Nevertheless, Marulaz’s cavalry picquets were rapidly pushed back and Hiller’s army marched ponderously closer to the town of Neumarkt, which lay astride the main road to Landshut and which guarded a key crossing on the River Rott (which, while not a major strategic obstacle was a considerable tactical obstacle).


At 0400hrs Bessières, with the bulk of his corps, on the north bank of the Rott at Neumarkt, was advised of Hiller’s advance by Jacquinot’s cavalry.  Despite the clear numerical advantage enjoyed by the Austrians, Bessières brushed off his aides’ concerns and instead ordered a reluctant General Wrede to take his Bavarians east of the Rott, to take up positions on the high ground, between Strass and the Leonberg hill.  By 0900hrs the bulk of Wrede’s division was in position, with Jacquinot’s cavalry formed up on their right.  Vincent’s Austrian cavalry were already visible near the Leonberg and a large column of white-coats was deploying from the highway into battle-order (our scenario starts at this point).


Fighting on home soil, Wrede’s Bavarians fought hard and Wrede himself seemed to be everywhere, inspiring the Bavarian troops by personal example.  However, the Bavarians were thinly-spread, massively outnumbered and it soon became apparent that they were being enveloped on both flanks.  Wrede, reinforced by elements of Molitor’s division, held out until noon, but was then finally forced to order his division to withdraw through Neumarkt.  Unfortunately, this withdrawal coincided with a renewed Austrian assault and hundreds of Bavarian infantry and French cavalry were killed or captured as the battle spilled into the narrow, winding streets of the town.


In the meantime, the ponderous Austrian flanking moves were finally approaching the battlefield.  Elements of Kottulinsky’s 2nd Column and Hoffmeister’s 3rd Column, strictly sticking to their orders, made no attempt to turn the Bavarian right flank at Obserscherm, but instead made straight for the river-crossing at Hundham (note that there are TWO hamlets called Hundham on this battlefield!).  Having crossed the Rott and established a bridgehead without difficulty, these Austrian units astonishingly made no further attempt to cut off the Franco-Bavarian retreat.  On the other flank, Radetzky’s wide flank march, which should have arrived in Bessières’ rear, was critically delayed by a single squadron of Bavarian dragoons and only arrived on the battlefield long after Bessières had retreated.


Bessières’ army, having begun its retreat at 1500hrs covered by a strong rearguard formed by Marulaz’s cavalry and Molitor’s unengaged infantry regiments, withdrew unmolested up the Landshut Road.  The Franco-Bavarian army had suffered around 1,400-1,600 casualties, 1,200 of whom were suffered by the Bavarian infantry.  The Austrians meanwhile had suffered around 1,400 casualties and remained masters of the field, so the Austrians had won a rare victory.  However, both commanding generals had handled the battle very badly and neither had covered themselves in glory…

Nevertheless, Hiller was feeling pleased with himself and that evening was settling in to St Vitus’ Abbey.  However, his bubble was burst when an Imperial messenger arrived, informing him of Archduke Charles’ defeat at Eggmühl and ordering him to withdraw at once to defend the River Inn…


Franco-Bavarian Order of Battle

Maréchal Bessières, Duc d’Istria
[7 Free Rolls]

2nd Bavarian Division – Generalleutnant von Wrede                     4”G(7)+1 [2F]
Inf Regt #3 ‘Prinz Karl’ & Lt Inf Bn #6 (Minucci’s Brigade)                           24 BvLT [12D]
Inf Regt #13 (Minucci’s Brigade)                                                                          16 BvLN [10D]
Inf-Regt #6 ‘Herzog Wilhelm’ (Beckers’ Brigade)                                            16 BvLN [10D]
Inf-Regt #7 ‘Löwenstein’ (Beckers’ Brigade)                                                     16 BvLN [10D]
Caspers’ 6pdr Mounted Light Battery                                                                 Bv6#
Dobl’s 12pdr Reserve Foot Battery                                                                      Bv12#

3rd Division of 4th Corps – Général de Division Molitor               5”E(7)+1 [2F]
2e Infanterie de Ligne (Legauy’s Brigade)                                                         16 FrLN [8D]
16e Infanterie de Ligne (Legauy’s Brigade)                                                       20 FrLN [10D]
37e Infanterie de Ligne (Viviès’ Brigade)                                                           16 FrLN [8D]
67e Infanterie de Ligne (Viviès’ Brigade)                                                           16 FrLN [8D]

4th Corps Cavalry Division – Général de Brigade Marulaz          3”G(6)+2 [2F]
3e & 19e Chasseurs à Cheval                                                                                 12 FrLC [6D]
23e Chasseurs à Cheval & Hessen-Darmstädt Chevauxlegers                       12 FrLC [6D]
Preysing’s Bavarian Cavalry Brigade                                                                  12 BvLC [6D]

Light Cavalry Brigade – Général de Brigade Jacquinot                  3”G(6)+1 [1F]
1er Chasseurs à Cheval & 8e Hussards                                                               12 FrLC [6D]
2e Chasseurs à Cheval                                                                                            12 FrLC [6D]

Reserve Artillery
French 6pdr Horse Battery                                                                                   Fr6#

Bavarian Infantryman (Leib Regiment)

Franco-Bavarian Order of Battle Notes

1. Wrede’s generalship stats have received a boost in most areas, as he was uncharacteristically dynamic on this day.

2. Preysing’s Bavarian Cavalry Brigade was part of Wrede’s Division, but was this day attached to Marulaz.

3. The Franco-Bavarian order of battle lists 36 guns as being present, but the total number of batteries only adds up to 30 guns. There must presumably have been an additional battery and I have therefore added a French horse battery as an artillery reserve (given the amount of French cavalry present, a French horse battery would have been a sensible attachment).  This battery must be attached to either Marulaz or Molitor at the start of the battle.

4. Note that I’ve adjusted the infantry ratio slightly from 1:120 to 1:100. This allows each regiment in the Franco-Bavarian army to be represented separately, instead of being represented as single large brigade-units. This is necessitated by the wide dispersal of Wrede’s Bavarians.

French Chasseurs à Cheval

Austrian Order of Battle

FML Johann von Hiller
[6 Free Rolls]

Advance Guard Cavalry Detachment – FML von Vincent     4”A(5)+0 [1F]
Chevauxlegers-Regiment #6 ‘Rosenberg’ (Nordmann’s Brigade)       12 AsLC [6D]

1st Column (Right) – FML Reuss-Plauen                                       3”A(7)+1 [2F]
Infanterie-Regiment #60 ‘Ignaz Gyulai’ (Bianchi’s Brigade)                20 AsLN [10D]
Bianchi’s Infantry Brigade (IRs #29 ‘Lindenau’ & #39 ‘Duka’)            24 AsLN [12D]
Fröhauff’s Infantry Brigade (IR #58 ‘Beaulieu’)                                      16 AsLN [8D]

2nd Column (Centre) – FML Kottulinsky                                      4”A(5)+1 [2F]
Grenz-Infanterie-Regiment #7 ‘Brod’ (Mesko’s Brigade)                      16 AsGRZ [10D]
Husaren-Regiment #8 ‘Kienmayer’ (Mesko’s Brigade)                          12 AsLC [6D]
Weissenwolff’s Inf Brigade (IRs #4 ‘Deutschmeister’ & 49 ‘Kerpen’)  28 AsLN [14D]
6pdr Cavalry Battery                                                                                      As6#
Hohenfeld’s Infantry Brigade (IRs #14 ‘Klebek’ & #59 ‘Jordis’)           28 AsLN [14D]
12pdr Position Battery                                                                                   As12#
12pdr Position Battery                                                                                   As12#

3rd Column (Left) – GM von Hoffmeister                                     4”A(5)+0 [2F]
Husaren-Regiment #7 ‘Liechtenstein’ (Nordmann’s Brigade)              12 AsLC [6D]
Grenz-Inf-Regt #6 ‘Warasdin-St. Georg’ (Nordmann’s Brigade)         16 AsGRZ [10D]
6pdr Cavalry Half-Battery                                                                             ½ As6#
Hoffeneck’s Infantry Brigade (IRs #31 ‘Benjowski’ & #51 ‘Splényi’)   28 AsLN [14D]

Right Flank-Guard – GM Radetzky                                                   5”E(8)+2 [2F]
Uhlanen-Regiment #3 ‘Erzherzog Karl’ (Radetzky’s Brigade)              12 AsLC [6D]
Grenz-Infanterie-Regiment #8 ‘Gradiska’ (Radetzky’s Brigade)         20 AsGRZ [12D]
6pdr Cavalry Half-Battery                                                                            ½ As6#
Reinwald’s Brigade (IR #40 ‘Josef Mittrowsky’)                                     24 AsLN [12D]

II Reserve Korps – FML Kienmayer                                               4”G(6)+2 [2F]
Clary’s Dragoon Brigade (DRs #3 ‘Knesevich’ & #4 ‘Levenehr’)         12 AsHC [5D]
6pdr Cavalry Half-Battery                                                                           ½ As6#
D’Aspré’s Grenadier Brigade                                                                      28 AsGN [11D]
6pdr Cavalry Battery                                                                                    As6#
12pdr Position Battery                                                                                 As12#
12pdr Position Battery                                                                                 As12#

Austrian Chevauxleger-Regiment #6 ‘Rosenberg’

Austrian Order of Battle Notes

1. Only the Austrians could take two well-organised corps (plus reserves) and mix them up into a bugger’s muddle like this… Archduke Ludwig (commander of V Corps) and FML von Schustekh (one of Ludwig’s divisional commanders) have for some reason disappeared from the story, even though their troops are all still present in the orbat. Perhaps they were simply attached to Hiller’s staff or were wounded/sick, or had duties elsewhere on the day?

2. God alone knows why Vincent, being a senior FML, was placed in command of a single regiment of Chevauxlegers…

3. Each column is shown in its order of march, with the top-listed unit in each column arriving first.

4. Note that I’ve adjusted the infantry ratio slightly from 1:120 to 1:100. This allows each regiment in the Franco-Bavarian army to be represented separately, instead of being represented as single large brigade-units. This is necessitated by the wide dispersal of Wrede’s Bavarians.

5. Austrian Dragoons would normally be classed as Light Cavalry in Napoleon’s Battles.  However, in this instance they formed part of the heavy cavalry reserve alongside the Cuirassier Brigades and were kept in hand as shock cavalry, so I think its worth upgrading Clary’s Brigade to Heavy Cavalry.  Feel free to disagree and downgrade them!

Austrian Grenadiers

General Order of Battle Notes

I’m afraid that I still haven’t worked out how to import the unit labels into WordPress, so if you want a copy of the Word file containing the labels, just comment below and I’ll send them to your e-mail address (which I can see when you comment).

As mentioned earlier, each formed unit in Napoleon’s Battles represents a brigade or large regiment.  The usual figure ratios are 1:120 for infantry and 1:80 for cavalry, though I’ve adopted 1:100 for the infantry in this scenario.  Some people I know like to represent the uniforms of every regiment within a brigade, but I tend to think that looks rather confusing and I prefer to represent a brigade using just one of the regiments within that brigade.  It would be boring if we were all the same… 😉

Light foot artillery batteries are not represented, as they are factored into the infantry strengths. Heavy foot batteries and horse batteries are represented on the table by individual gun models, plus crew.  If you’re playing Age of Eagles, you’ll need to add two 6pdr batteries to Wrede, a 6pdr battery to Molitor, a 6pdr battery to Hoffmeister (at the rear of the column), two 6pdr batteries to Kottulinsky (one with Weissenwolff’s Bde and one with Hohenfeld’s Bde), two 6pdr batteries to Reuss-Plauen (one with Bianchi’s Bde and one with Fröhauff’s Bde), one 6pdr battery to Radetzky (at the back of the column) and one 6pdr battery to Kienmayer (with the Grenadier Bde).

The unit stats are written in ‘Napoleon’s Battlesese’.  Essentially each unit is followed by a number showing its starting strength in figures, followed by the nationality code and the unit type code, which corresponds with the Unit Information Card below.  The last number in brackets is the strength at which the unit will disperse.  Generals have a command-radius in inches, a quality rating (Poor, Average, Good or Excellent), an initiative rating from 1-8 (higher the better – C-in-Cs are always 10) and a combat bonus.

Austrian Husaren-Regiment #7 ‘Liechtenstein’


The Austrians deploy all the units shown on the map in the positions shown, in any formation (artillery starts the game limbered).

The French and Bavarians are deployed in the positions shown on the map, in any formation.  Artillery may be unlimbered.  Additionally, the Bavarian 3rd and 13th Infantry Regiments may be re-deployed up to 12 inches from their shown starting positions, but no closer than 6 inches to an Austrian unit’s starting position.  The 3rd and 13th Infantry Regiments may also split off detachments to occupy Oberscherm, Strass and/or St Vitus’ Abbey before the game starts (modify the order of battle and unit labels accordingly).

The C-in-Cs and all divisional commanders named on the map may start the game in a location of the controlling player’s choice (the dots on the map are purely illustrative).

Austrian reinforcement generals arrive at the head of their reinforcement column.

All reinforcement units are automatically classed as activated and may make a full move during the turn in which they arrive on table (taking into account the distance they have to travel to reach the table due to the length of the column in front).  The normal command, activation and movement rules apply thereafter.

Austrian Infantry

Game Schedule

0900hrs (Turn 1) – Game Start.  Austrians have the first turn.  The rest of Reuss-Plauen’s 1st Column arrives at Point D.  Austrian Army Morale is 4

0930hrs (Turn 2) – Hohenfeld’s Brigade (2nd Column) arrives at Point C and Austrian Army Morale increases to 5.

1000hrs (Turn 3) – Weissenwolf’s Brigade (2nd Column) arrives at Point B.

1200hrs (Turn 7) – Hoffmeister’s 3rd Column arrives at Point A and Austrian Army Morale increases to 7.

1300hrs (Turn 9) – Kienmayer’s Reserve Column arrives at Point C and Austrian Army Morale increases to 8.

1500hrs (Turn 13) – Radetzky’s Flank Guard arrives at Point E and Austrian Army Morale increases to 10.

1930hrs (Turn 22) – Game ends following the Franco-Bavarian turn.

Austrian units arrive on the indicated road in March Column.  They may delay their arrival by two turns in order to deploy into battle array and will then arrive in any formation, up to 6 inches from the road.

Reinforcement arrival times may be altered using the usual Variable Arrival Time system:

Two turns before the designated arrival time, roll a D10: They will arrive on a roll of 1.

One turn before the designated arrival time, roll a D10: They will arrive on a roll of 1-3.

On the designated arrival time, roll a D10: They will arrive on a roll of 1-6.

After the designated arrival time, roll a D10: They will arrive on a roll of 1-8.

Note that the Army Morale level may change if units arrive in the wrong order, so you’ll have to work it out!  Total the number of arrived formed units (including all those already eliminated) and consult the Army Morale chart to find the current Army Morale number.

Bavarian Artillery

Austrian Artillery

Terrain Notes

The map represents 7′ x 6′ on table, equivalent to 7km x 6km.  Each grid-square is a square foot/km.

The River Rott is impassable to all troop-types, except at the four bridges shown on the map.  All other streams are very minor obstacles and are passable by all troop types as linear rough ground.

The woods are passable to all troop types as rough ground.

The town of Neumarkt may be occupied by up to three infantry units of any size: one south of the river, one north of the river and one on the northern edge of the town.  It is not well suited for defence and only carries a +1 defensive modifier.  Units passing through Neumarkt on the roads may only do so at rough ground speed.

The Abbey of St Vitus (‘St Veit’) is marked by a cross and is highly defensible.  It has a defensive modifier of +3.  However, it may only accommodate a maximum of two stands of infantry.

All other hamlets are tiny communities and/or farms and can only accommodate small detachments of two stands of infantry.  Defensive modifier for all hamlets is +1.

Austrian General Staff

Victory Conditions

Austrian Victory – The Franco-Bavarian army is ‘Hopelessly Broken’* (this overrides all other victory conditions).

Austrian Partial Victory – The Franco-Bavarian army has been ‘Broken’*.  OR All formed and undisordered Franco-Bavarian units have been pushed west of the River Rott and there is also at least one undisordered Austrian unit west of the Rott.

Franco-Bavarian Partial Victory – The Franco-Bavarian army remains unbroken, is holding Neumarkt with at least one undisordered formed unit, has at least one formed and undisordered unit east of the Rott and there are no undisordered Austrian formed units in Neumarkt or blocking the Landshut Road.

Franco-Bavarian Victory – The Austrian Army is ‘Hopelessly Broken’* (this overrides all other victory conditions).

Draw – Anything else.

* The Austrian Army Morale level will increase as reinforcements arrive on table.  The Austrian Army may therefore become temporarily ‘Broken’ and then recover when reinforcements arrive and push the Army Morale level up.  The army will normally only become ‘Hopelessly Broken’ if the maximum Army Morale level of 10 is breached (note that while Routed units may count towards an army becoming ‘Broken’, only eliminated units may count toward an army becoming ‘Hopelessly Broken’).  However, as a scenario rule, the Austrian Army will become ‘Hopelessly Broken’ if all units (not including batteries) on table at any given time become Routed or eliminated.


The models shown above are all 15mm figures from my own collection and are mostly by AB Figures, except for Bessières, who is actually a Murat figure by Sho Boki and the Bavarian artillery, who are by Battle Honours.

That’s it for now!  The game report will be up soon…

Posted in 15mm Figures, Napoleon's Battles (Rules), Napoleonic Wars, Scenarios | Leave a comment