The Battle of Leuthen 5th December 1757: A Scenario for ‘Tricorn’

Like many others, I originally started wargaming because I wanted to refight the Great Battles of History, as in the epic wargame scene in the film Callan.  It is therefore, very satisfying when you finally manage to tick one off the list! 🙂

One such Great Battle was ticked off the list on Platinum Jubilee Thursday (2nd June), when we refought the Battle of Leuthen (albeit without the snow) at the Carmarthen Old Guard.  As we only had a single available day to play the game, we played it in one day (six hours), but it could easily have gone on for longer, had it not been for some disastrous dice-rolling and an ‘early bath’ for one side!  This was fortunate, as we’d run out of club-time anyway.  This scenario is probably therefore, best played over two days (of if you have the stamina, over a longer period in one day).  I’ll post the after-action report next time, but here’s the scenario, designed for Tricorn rules (our unofficial 18th Century conversion for Shako Napoleonic rules).

It does have to be said that Leuthen, like Rossbach, is one of those battles where it is VERY unlikely to result in anything other than a historical result, but some wargaming itches just beg to be scratched…

Historical Background

Frederick after Kolin

1757 had not started well for King Frederick II of Prussia.  His invasion of Bohemia had resulted first in a pyrrhic victory at Prague and then complete defeat at Kolin, followed by a hasty retreat back to his own borders.  To add to his problems, the Russians were also invading in the east, while the French, together with the Imperial Reichsarmee were poised to invade from the west.

Thankfully for Frederick, Prince Charles of Lorraine squandered Daun’s victory at Kolin by vacillating when he should have been invading Prussian territory.  This Austrian failure gave Frederick the breathing-space he needed to march west and blunt the Franco-Imperial advance.  This he did in spectacular style on 5th November, by utterly crushing the Franco-Imperial army at Rossbach.  Frederick’s army was soon re-tracing its steps, marching hard to once again meet the Austrians, who had finally managed to force Bevern’s Prussian army back into Silesia.

However, Frederick was too late to save Bevern’s army.  Fighting at odds of almost 2:1, Bevern was defeated on 22nd November at Breslau.  Leaving 5,000 men to garrison Breslau, the rest of Bevern’s demoralised army retreated north to the fortress of Glogau.  However, the Breslau garrison, demoralised and under-provisioned, surrendered after only two days, on 24th November.  Upon hearing the news of Bevern’s defeat, Frederick sent General Zieten with his hussars to gather up the surviving units of Bevern’s army and bring them to Parchwitz, some 25 miles west of Breslau.  Frederick himself arrived at Parchwitz on 28th November and after allowing a few days to absorb as many of Bevern’s survivors as could be gathered, set out again on 4th December to meet the Austrians in battle.

Early on the following morning, at the snow-dusted village of Borne, the Prussian advance guard under the Prince of Württemberg surprised and defeated the Austrian advance guard, commanded by the Saxon General Nostitz.  Frederick, right up with the advance guard, immediately galloped forward to the high ground beyond the village and was greeted by the incredible sight of a huge army of whitecoats, stretched out over three miles, from the hamlet of Sagschütz in the south, through the villages of Leuthen and Frobelwitz, to Nippern in the north.  Frederick had seen a very similar sight nearly six months earlier, at Kolin.  However, this time his army was completely hidden from observation by the gently rolling landscape and Lorraine’s main reconnaissance asset had just been swept from the field, leaving the Austrians completely blind.  Frederick also had an ace up his sleeve; he knew the ground intimately, thanks to exercising his army on this very ground during peacetime.

Frederick quickly formulated his plan.  Ordering Württemberg’s advance guard, along with three Frei-Battalions and the Feldjäger zu Fuss to continue on the original axis of advance and demonstrate against the Austrian right wing at Nippern, Frederick ordered the rest of his army to turn south from Borne, using the terrain and patchy fog to mask their  movement as far as Striegwitz.

This manoeuvre worked brilliantly as Lucchese, commanding the Austrian cavalry of the right wing, became convinced that he was about to become the focus of the Prussian attack and begged Lorraine for reinforcements.  Lorraine agreed and ordered all the reserve cavalry, including Serbelloni’s division on the left wing, to march north, while the bulk of the Grenzer and grenadiers were ordered to skirmish out in front of Nippern, in search of the phantom Prussian army.  Marschall Daun, Lorraine’s 2ic and the victor of Kolin, disagreed with this decision (he believed the Prussians to be retiring), but accompanied the troops northward, in order to gain a better appreciation of the situation at Nippern.

Having fixed the Austrian attention to the north, Württemberg’s cavalry now withdrew to join the rear of Frederick’s column, leaving only the small light infantry contingent to maintain a presence in the north.  Driesen now took over responsibility for securing the Prussian left flank; he concealed his cavalry in dead ground behind Radaxdorf, ready to counter any southward Austrian move.

It was now approaching noon and at the front of the column, Bevern’s infantry flank-guard and Ziethen’s large cavalry division had appeared near Sagchütz, followed by the two long columns of Prussian infantry.  The Hungarian General Nadásdy, commanding the Austro-Allied left wing corps, could clearly see what was going to happen and sent appeal after appeal for Serbelloni’s cavalry to return and for Lorraine to see what was happening, but to no avail.  The only general to respond was Feldmarschallieutenant Buccow, commanding one of Serbelloni’s cavalry divisions, who disobeyed his orders and turned back to face the new threat.  Having been left to fend for himself, Nadásdy ordered Spiznass’ Württemberg Corps to refuse the flank to the left and ordered O’Donnell’s cavalry to move to the left flank and form up with Nostitz’s hussars and Saxon chevauxlegers.

While Nadásdy was frantically realigning his command, the Prussian infantry had executed a parade-perfect wheel to the left, forming two lines facing north.  They then performed another wheel by battalions; a three-quarter turn to the right, thereby aligning every battalion in line, arranged one behind the other in two columns aimed at the Württemberg left flank.  As the lead battalions came within musket-shot of the enemy, the entire Prussian infantry contingent executed a perfect quarter-wheel to the left, so that they were once again facing north, but were now arranged in echelon, with the right flank (heavily reinforced with elite battalions) advanced toward the enemy and the vulnerable left flank refused away from any possible Austrian response.  Frederick’s ‘Oblique Advance’ had been executed perfectly and his infantry were now poised to roll up the Austrian-Allied left flank.

However, Zieten’s cavalry were struggling to deploy effectively among the tangle of villages, ponds, woods and the bank of the Schweidnitz River and he was therefore having to attack through the Sagschütz woods at 45 degrees.  It was at this point that Nadásdy managed to strike the first blow, surprising Zieten and routing the Normann Dragoons, even managing to get hussars around and into Zieten’s rear!  However, Bevern’s infantry were deployed against just such an eventuality and their fire halted the Austrian and Saxon horsemen, giving Zieten’s cavalry a chance to rally and finally drive back the enemy.

In the meantime, Frederick had deployed heavy 12pdr and 24pdr guns dangerously close to Austrian lines, on the Butter-Berg and Juden-Berg.  As these began to pour a heavy fire onto Austrian lines, at 1pm the Prussian vanguard smashed into the Württembergers, closely followed by some of the best regiments in Frederick’s army.  The Austro-Allied left flank quickly began to crumble; first the Württembergers and then the Bavarians broke and fled.  Forgàch’s Austrian infantry tried to make a stand on the Kirch-Berg, north of Sagschütz, but now came under fire from heavy guns newly-positioned on the Glanz-Berg and too were broken.  Less than 30 minutes had passed since the initial assault.

Grenadier Battalion ‘Kremzow’ (17/22), on the right flank of the Prussian first line, comes under fire at Sagschütz.

However, Lorraine had finally begun to grasp the enormity of the crisis and was beginning to send formations south to meet the Prussians.  Part of Arenberg’s reserve infantry division had already gone north to Nippern, but his remaining five battalions were now ordered south, to hold the line at Leuthen.

Seeing the disaster unfolding in front of him, Buccow knew that he had to win time for a new line to establish itself at Leuthen.  With only two regiments of cuirassiers, one regiment of dragoons and six elite squadrons, he bravely held off the Prussians for over an hour, until heavy losses finally forced him to withdraw.  The Austrian gunners had also held off Retzow’s Prussian left wing and these sacrifices allowed the new line to begin to crystalise around Leuthen.

At around 3.30pm, the Prussians had finally re-ordered their lines and moved to assault Leuthen village.  Thanks to Buccow’s sacrifice, Arenberg’s infantry were in place, but the toll from the great mass of close-range Prussian heavy artillery was appalling and three battalions were quickly shredded by fire.  Arenberg’s two remaining battalions held on heroically, buying time for Colloredo’s right wing to move up, but they too were eventually forced back.  Nevertheless, their sacrifice had allowed time for the Austrians to stuff thousands of troops into the village and the church, surrounded by thick, almost fortress-like walls, was turned into a strongpoint by the Imperial ‘Rot’ (‘Red’) Würzburg Regiment.

The III. Battalion of the Garde-Regiment (IR 15) storm a breach in the southern wall of the church. Note that this entire battalion wore grenadier mitre caps.

The ‘Pannwitz’ Regiment (IR 10) was initially given the task of assaulting the church, but after numerous fruitless attempts and 710 casualties, the task was passed to the Garde-Regiment (IR 15), which had its II. & III. Battalions present.  For a full half-hour, the Prussian guardsmen were repulsed time and time again by the heroic Würzburgers, until at last III./Garde stormed a breach in the southern wall (above) while II./Garde simultaneously managed to force their way in via the eastern gate (below).  The magnificent Würzburgers simply couldn’t hold out any more and at last a small group of only five officers and 33 men broke out of the churchyard, saving their four colours.  The Prussian Garde-Regiment had lost 510 men in their assault.

The II. Battalion of Regiment-Garde (IR 15) storm the eastern gate of Leuthen Church. Note that this battalion actually wore hats. The red grenadier caps shown were only worn by the regiment’s detached companies of ‘flank-grenadiers’, who formed half of Grenadier Battalion ‘Kleist’ (15/18).

However, the collapse of Leuthen had not yet brought about a collapse of the Austrian army.  As the Prussians exited the northern edge of the village, they came under heavy musketry and canister fire from Colloredo’s infantry and artillery, positioned on the Windmill hill beyond.  More Austrian troops were streaming south through Frobelwitz from Kheul’s right wing.  It was now 4pm, night was falling and Frederick still needed to win the battle.  As so often happened in Frederick’s battles, fate now played a hand…

General of Cavalry Lucchese, who had earlier demanded that reinforcements be sent north to meet the phantom threat, now came south.  At around 4.30pm his great mass of cavalry appeared at the crest of the Schönberg and swept south, intending to roll up what he supposed to be the the Prussian left flank, starting with the juicy target of the Prussian battery on the Butter-Berg.  However, he remained completely unaware of Driesen’s large cavalry wing, which was still hidden behind the ridge of the Sophienberg!

Observing the appearance of Lucchese’s cavalry, Driesen immediately ordered his 50 squadrons forward against Lucchese’s 54 squadrons.  On paper these were a close match, but Driesen had surprise and a flanking position on his side!  The initial clash was catastrophic for the Austrians as Lucchese was killed and the Prussian hussars worked their way round to attack them from the rear, but the Austrian second line somehow managed to check the Prussian attack.  as night began to fall, the pendulum of battle briefly swung back in the Austrians’ favour, but it was at this moment that Prince Eugene of Württemberg struck with his 30 squadrons of hussars and dragoons!

The Austrian cavalry collapsed!  Fugitives swept over the Windmill Hill, closely pursued by Prussian horsemen.  The result was a slaughter as Austrian batteries and battalions, outflanked and overrun by Prussian cavalry, simply dissolved.

Frederick had his victory.

Exhausted and relieved at having survived the battle, Prussian troops sang the hymn ‘Now Thank We All Our God’ amid the carnage of Leuthen.

The Scenario

Note that this scenario does not include large chunks of the Austrian right wing, as with a few exceptions, they didn’t get involved in the battle and by the time they moved south of Frobelwitz and the Prussians reached them, the army was broken.  Their presence is however, reflected in the Austrian army morale level (they receive an additional 100 morale points for the off-table formations).  This also means that we could (just) fit the battle onto a 10 x 6-foot table instead of a 16 x 6-foot table.

The Prussian Army – King Frederick II

(Excellent – 3 ADCs)

Advance Guard – Generallieutenant Prinz von Württemberg (Average)
I. Bn (5 sqns), ‘Werner’ (‘Capuchin’) Hussars (HR 6) [4/1]
II. Bn (5 sqns), ‘Werner’ (‘Capuchin’) Hussars (HR 6) [4/1]
6 Sqns, ‘Warnery’ Hussars (HR 3) (elite) (Large Unit) [5/2]
I. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Seydlitz’ (‘Red’) Hussars (HR 8) [4/1]
II. Bn (4 Sqns), ‘Seydlitz’ (‘Red’) Hussars (HR 8) [4/1]
5 Sqns, ‘Württemberg’ Dragoons (DR 12) (Large Unit) [5/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Székely’ (‘Green’) Hussars (HR 1) (elite) [5/2]

Flank Guard – Generallieutenant Prinz von Braunschweig-Bevern (Good)
Grenadier Battalion ‘Wedell’ (1/23) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Manteuffel’ (37/40) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Ramin’ (19/25) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Bornstedt’ (13/26) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Asseburg’ Infantry Regiment (IR 27) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Itzenplitz’ Infantry Regiment (IR 13) (elite) [5/2]
Battalion Guns [2/0]

Cavalry of the Right Wing – Generallieutenant von Zieten (Excellent)
3 Sqns, ‘Garde du Corps’ Cuirassiers (CR 13) [6/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Gensd’armes’ Cuirassiers (CR 10) (Large Unit) [6/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Seydlitz’ Cuirassiers (CR 8) (Large Unit) [6/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Markgraf Friedrich’ Cuirassiers (CR 5) (Large Unit) [6/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Jung-Schönaich’ Cuirassiers (CR 6) (Large Unit) [6/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Normann’ Dragoons (DR 1) (Large Unit) [5/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Czetteritz’ Dragoons (DR 4) (Large Unit) [5/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Jung-Krockow’ Dragoons (DR 2) (Large Unit) [5/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Stechow’ Dragoons (DR 11) (Large Unit) [5/2]
I. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Zieten’ (‘Leib’) Hussars (HR 2) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Zieten’ (‘Leib’) Hussars (HR 2) (elite) [5/2]

Infantry of the Right Wing – Generallieutenant Prinz Ferdinand von Preussen (Good)
I. Bn, ‘Meyerinck’ Infantry Regiment (IR 26) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Meyerinck’ Infantry Regiment (IR 26) (elite) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Itzenplitz’ Infantry Regiment (IR 13) (elite) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Kleist’ (4/16) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Unruh’ (Standing Grenadier Battalion 2) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Kremzow’ (17/22) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Markgraf Karl’ Infantry Regiment (IR 19) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Markgraf Karl’ Infantry Regiment (IR 19) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Garde’ Infantry Regiment (IR 15) (guard) [6/2]
III. Bn, ‘Garde’ Infantry Regiment (IR 15) (guard) [6/2]
‘Grenadiergarde’ Infantry Regiment (IR 6) (guard) [6/2]
I. Bn, ‘Kannacher’ Infantry Regiment (IR 30) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Kannacher’ Infantry Regiment (IR 30) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Pannwitz’ Infantry Regiment (IR 10) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Pannwitz’ Infantry Regiment (IR 10) [4/1]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]

Infantry of the Left Wing – Generallieutenant von Retzow (Average)
I. Bn, ‘Geist’ Infantry Regiment (IR 8) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Geist’ Infantry Regiment (IR 8) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Winterfeldt’ Infantry Regiment (IR 1) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Winterfeldt’ Infantry Regiment (IR 1) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Forcade’ Infantry Regiment (IR 23) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Forcade’ Infantry Regiment (IR 23) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Alt-Braunschweig’ Infantry Regiment (IR 5) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Alt-Braunschweig’ Infantry Regiment (IR 5) (elite) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Hacke’ (3/6) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Schenckendorf’ (35/36) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Dieringshofen’ (21/27) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Kurszell’ Füsilier Regiment (IR 37) [4/1]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]

Infantry of the Second Line – Generallieutenant von Forcade * (Average)
I. Bn, ‘Prinz von Preussen’ Infantry Regiment (IR 18) (elite) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Münchow’ Füsilier Regiment (IR 36) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Jung-Braunschweig’ Füsilier Regiment (IR 39) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Alt-Württemberg’ Füsilier Regiment (IR 46) [4/1]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Östenreich’ (29/31) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Plötz’ (Standing Grenadier Battalion 6) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Prinz Ferdinand’ Infantry Regiment (IR 34) (elite) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Kahlden’ (Standing Grenadier Battalion 1) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Prinz Heinrich’ Füsilier Regiment (IR 35) (elite) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Kalckstein’ Infantry Regiment (IR 25) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Kalckstein’ Infantry Regiment (IR 25) [4/1]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]

Cavalry of the Left Wing – Generallieutenant von Driesen (Good)
5 Sqns, ‘Krockow’ Cuirassiers (CR 1) (Large Unit) [6/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Leib-Carabiniers’ Cuirassiers (CR 11) (Large Unit) [6/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Driesen’ Cuirassiers (CR 7) (Large Unit) [6/2]
I. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Bayreuth’ Dragoons (DR 5) (Large Unit) [5/2]
II. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Bayreuth’ Dragoons (DR 5) (Large Unit) [5/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Kyau’ Cuirassiers (CR 12) (Large Unit) [6/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Schönaich’ Cuirassiers (CR 9) (Large Unit) [6/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Gessler’ Cuirassiers (CR 4) (Large Unit) [6/2]
I. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Puttkamer’ Hussars (HR 4) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Puttkamer’ Hussars (HR 4) (elite) [5/2]

Artillery Reserve

Butter-Berg Battery
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]

Juden-Berg Battery
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]

Prussian Notes

* Forcade’s 2nd Line covers a massive frontage and it might be easier for game-play purposes if it were split into two wings; Generalmajor von Oldenburg’s Brigade on the left of the 2nd Line had the Kalckstein Musketeers (2 bns), Prince Ferdinand Musketeers (1 bn), Kahlden Grenadier Bn, the Prince Henry Fusiliers (1 bn) and a battery of battalion guns, for a total FMR of 25.  On the right of the line, Generalmajor von Bülow’s Brigade had the Plötz Grenadiers, Östenreich Grenadiers, Alt-Württemberg Fusiliers, Jung-Braunschweig Fusiliers, Münchow Fusiliers, Prince von Preussen Musketeers (1 bn each) and the remaining battalion guns, with a total FMR of 29.  Class both Brigadiers as Average.

Note that I’ve reduced the number of Battalion Guns on both sides in order to speed up play and to reduce the likelihood of the game bogging down into an artillery-duel.  The ratio would normally be one battery of battalion guns for every four Prussian battalions or for every four Austrian battalions (not including grenadiers), but I’ve increased the ratio here to 1:6.

Only the Heavy Position Batteries are marked on the map.  The Butter-Berg and Juden-Berg Batteries start the game unlimbered at Effective Range (i.e. within the 12″-20″ range-band) from the nearest enemy unit.  All other Prussian artillery starts the game limbered.  Battalion Guns should be dispersed equally among the infantry battalions; either deployed in front or in the intervals between battalions.  The 2nd Line should also have its appropriate share of Battalion Guns.

Prussian Formation Breakpoints

Division                FMR   ⅓    ½     ¾
Württemberg            31       11     16     24
Bevern                        32       11     16     24
Zieten                         60       20    30    45
Ferdinand                 92        31    46     69
Retzow                       63        21    32     48
Forcade                      54        18    27     41
Driesen                      56         19    28    42
Artillery Reserve*    12          –       –       –

Army                     FMR     ¼      ⅓      ½
Prussian Army        390       98    130    195

* The MR value of any broken Artillery Reserve Batteries are added when assessing overall Army losses.

Prussian Orders

All Prussian infantry divisions except Bevern must start the game on Attack orders.

Zieten’s and Bevern’s Divisions may start the game on Attack or Defend orders.

Württemberg’s Division must start the game on Reserve orders.

Driesen’s Division starts the game off-table and may be ordered to ride to the battle, though may intervene without orders (see below).

No orders may be changed until the Orders Phase of Turn 2.

Prussian Reinforcements

Due to limited table size, the left flank of the Prussian infantry and Württemberg’s cavalry may be brought on to table, adjacent to the left flank of their parent formations, at any time.

Driesen’s cavalry is off-table to the west, concealed by the high ground of the Sophien-Berg, just to the west of Radaxdorf. Driesen is tasked with countering any move by Austrian cavalry against the Prussian left flank. His division MAY appear (at the Prussian player’s choice) two turns (or later) after the arrival of any new Austrian cavalry formations OR if any Austrian cavalry units push west of the main Austrian line.  They may arrive anywhere between Lobetinz and the Briegwasser stream.  The division arrives in three lines: CR 1, CR 7, CR 11 & DR 5 (from right to left) in the first line, CR 12, CR 9 & CR 4 in the second line and HR 4 forming the third line.  Driesen will arrive under Attack orders (mark command arrow on map).

Frederick may alternatively give Attack orders to Driesen’s cavalry at any time from the Orders Phase of Turn 2 onward.  Driesen is classed as being one ADC move from Frederick and if successful, Driesen will arrive two turns later (arrival locations and formation as above).

If you want to maintain the fog of war, use this briefing map for the Prussians:

The Austrian Army – Feldmarschall Prince Charles of Lorraine

(Poor – 1 ADC)*

Infantry of the Left Wing (Left) – Feldzeugmeister Graf Colloredo** (Average)
I. Bn, ‘Moltke’ Infantry Regiment (IR 13) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Hildburghausen’ Infantry Regiment (IR 8) (Large Unit) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Hildburghausen’ Infantry Regiment (IR 8) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Carl Lothringen’ Infantry Regiment (IR 3) (Large Unit) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Carl Lothringen’ Infantry Regiment (IR 3) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Baden-Baden’ Infantry Regiment (IR 23) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Gaisruck’ Infantry Regiment (IR 32) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘L. (Jung-) Wolfenbüttel’ Infantry Regiment (IR 10) (Large Unit) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘L. (Jung-) Wolfenbüttel’ Infantry Regiment (IR 10) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Harrach’ Infantry Regiment (IR 47) (Large Unit) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Harrach’ Infantry Regiment (IR 47) (Large Unit) [4/1]
Grenadier Battalion [5/2]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Light Battery [3/0]

Infantry of the Left Wing (Right) – Feldzeugmeister Graf Colloredo** (Average)
I. Bn, ‘Alt-Wolfenbüttel’ Infantry Regiment (IR 29) (Large Unit) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Alt-Wolfenbüttel’ Infantry Regiment (IR 29) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Joseph Esterházy’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 37) (Large Unit) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Joseph Esterházy’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 37) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Nicholas Esterházy’ Hungarian’ Infantry Regiment (IR 33) (Large Unit) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Nicholas Esterházy’ Hungarian’ Infantry Regiment (IR 33) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Thurheim’ Infantry Regiment (IR 25) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Kheul’ Infantry Regiment (IR 49) (Large Unit) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Kheul’ Infantry Regiment (IR 49) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Deutschmeister’ Infantry Regiment (IR 4) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, Imperial ‘Rot-Würzburg’ Infantry Regiment (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Browne’ Infantry Regiment (IR 36) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Bethlen’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 52) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Harsch’ Infantry Regiment (IR 50) (Large Unit) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Harsch’ Infantry Regiment (IR 50) (Large Unit) [4/1]
Grenadier Battalion [5/2]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Light Battery [3/0]

Reserve Infantry of the Left Wing – Feldmarschallieutenant Forgách (Good)
I. Bn, ‘Heinrich Daun’ Infantry Regiment (IR 45) (Large Unit) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Heinrich Daun’ Infantry Regiment (IR 45) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Leopold Pálffy’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 19) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Haller’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 31) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Macquire’ Infantry Regiment (IR 46) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Luzan’ Infantry Regiment (IR 48) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Clerici’ Infantry Regiment (IR 44) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Forgách’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 32) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘A. Batthiány’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 34) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Joseph Pálffy’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 39) (Large Unit) [4/1]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Light Battery [3/0]
Light Battery [3/0]
Slavonisch-Gradiskaner Grenzer [Skirmishers]

Württemberg Auxiliary Corps – Feldmarschallieutenant Graf Spiznass (Poor)
I. Bn, ‘Truchsess’ Fusilier Regiment (poor) [3/0]
II. Bn, ‘Truchsess’ Fusilier Regiment (poor) [3/0]
I. Bn, ‘Röder’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
II. Bn, ‘Röder’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
I. Bn, ‘Prinz Louis’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
II. Bn, ‘Prinz Louis’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
I. Bn, ‘Leib’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
II. Bn, ‘Leib’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
I. ‘Klettenberg’ Grenadier Battalion [4/1]
II. ‘Pless’ Grenadier Battalion [4/1]
III. ‘Georgi’ Grenadier Battalion [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Spiznass’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
II. Bn, ‘Spiznass’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Slavonisch-Gradiskaner Grenzer [Skirmishers]

Bavarian Auxiliary Corps – Generalfeldwachtmeister Graf Seyssel d’Aix (Poor)
II. Bn, ‘Kurprinz’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
I. Bn, ‘Preysing’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
I. Bn, ‘Erzherzog Clemens’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
II. Bn, ‘Erzherzog Clemens’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
II. Bn, ‘Leib’ Infantry Regiment [4/1]
III. Bn, ‘Leib’ Infantry Regiment [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Morawitzky’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
II. Bn, ‘Morawitzky’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
I. Bn, ‘Minucci’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
II. Bn, ‘Minucci’ Infantry Regiment (poor) [3/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]

Reserve Cavalry of the Left Wing – General der Cavallerie Nadásdy (Good)
6 Sqns, ‘Hessen-Darmstädt’ Dragoons (D19) (Large Unit) [5/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Zweibrücken’ Dragoons (D39) (Large Unit) [5/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Jung-Modena’ Dragoons (D13) (Large Unit) [5/2]
4 Sqns, Saxon ‘Prinz Carl’ Chevaulegers† [5/2]
4 Sqns, Saxon ‘Prinz Albrecht’ Chevaulegers† [5/2]
4 Sqns, Saxon ‘Graf Brühl’ Chevaulegers† [5/2]
6 Sqns, Sachsen-Gotha’ Dragoons (D28) (Large Unit) [5/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Nadásdy’ Hussars (H11)† [4/1]
5 Sqns, ‘Dessewffy’ Hussars (H34)† [4/1]

Elements, Cavalry of the Left Wing – Feldmarschallieutenant Graf Buccow‡ (Excellent)
6 Sqns, ‘Kalckreuth’ Cuirassiers (C22) (Large Unit) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Erzherzog Ferdinand’ Cuirassiers (C4) (Large Unit) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Batthiány’ Dragoons (D7) (Large Unit) [5/2]
5 Sqns, Massed Carabinier Companies (Large Unit) [6/2]

Reserve Infantry of the Right Wing (-) – Feldmarschallieutenant Herzog von Arenberg (Average)
I. Bn, ‘Mercy-Argentau’ Infantry Regiment (IR 56) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Haller’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 31) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘De Ligne’ Infantry Regiment (IR 38) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘D’Arberg’ Infantry Regiment (IR 55) (Large Unit) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Andlau’ Infantry Regiment (IR 57) (Large Unit) [4/1]
Battalion Guns [2/0]

Cavalry of the Right Wing – General der Cavallerie Graf Lucchese§ (Average)
6 Sqns, ‘Erzherzog Joseph’ Dragoons (D1) (Large Unit) [5/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Erzherzog Leopold’ Cuirassiers (C3) (Large Unit) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Lucchese’ Cuirassiers (Cii) (Large Unit) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Stampach’ Cuirassiers (C10) (Large Unit) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Löwenstein’ Cuirassiers (C27) (Large Unit) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Benedict Daun’ Dragoons (D31) (Large Unit) [5/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Herzog Württemberg’ Dragoons (D38) (Large Unit) [5/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Serbelloni’ Cuirassiers (C12) (Large Unit) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Anhalt-Zerbst’ Cuirassiers (C25) (Large Unit) [6/2]

Austrian Notes

* Starting on Turn 2: At the start of each Initiative Phase, roll 1 d6 for Prince Charles of Lorraine.  On a roll of 6, Feldmarschall Daun takes command for that turn: increase C-C Quality to Good (rolls 2 d6 command dice) and an extra ADC can be deployed this turn.  At the end of the turn command reverts to Lorraine and the extra ADC is removed if he wasn’t used.  NB The extra ADC can be used first, leaving the ‘regular’ ADC at headquarters.  Daun will then add an ADC every time he appears, even if his previous additional ADC is still in play, galloping toward his destination.

** I’ve arbitrarily split Colloredo’s massive command into two wings (Left & Right) for game flexibility.  The Left consists of the brigades of Puebla (1st Line) and Wied (2nd Line), while the Right comprises the brigades of D’Arberg & Angern (1st Line) and Haller (2nd Line).

† The Saxon Generallieutenant Nostitz was seriously wounded during the initial cavalry combat at Borne.  Nevertheless, he carried on fighting hard at Sagschütz, though would die from his wounds twelve days later, after being captured by the Prussians.  His division (consisting of the three Saxon-Polish Chevauxleger regiments and two Austrian Hussar regiments) is grouped with O’Donnell’s Austrian cavalry, under Nadásdy’s command.  I did consider marking each of Nostitz’s regiments with a single casualty at the start of the game, to account for losses suffered at Borne, but they did remarkably well doing the clash at Sagschütz, so decided to leave them as they are.

‡ Feldmarschallieutenant Buccow was ordered to move north with the rest of Serbelloni’s Left Wing Cavalry Division, in response to a perceived Prussian attack on the Austrian right flank.  However, when the Prussian attack appeared on the LEFT flank, Buccow disobeyed orders, halted his division and then mounted a counter-attack (along with five amalgamated elite squadrons described as Carabiniers, but possibly also including Horse Grenadiers) against the Prussian infantry advancing from Sagschütz.

§ The Austrian Right Wing under Kheul, the cavalry of the Left Wing under Serbelloni (with the exception of Buccow’s Division), the massed light troops and grenadiers (who were skirmishing in front of the right flank near Nippern) and part of Arenberg’s Reserve Division played no significant part in the battle and aren’t therefore represented here.  However, the strength of the missing right wing is counted for army morale purposes with an arbitrary extra 100 army morale points (below).

Note that I’ve reduced the number of Battalion Guns on both sides in order to speed up play and to reduce the likelihood of the game bogging down into an artillery-duel.  The ratio would normally be one battery of battalion guns for every four Prussian battalions or for every four Austrian battalions (not including grenadiers), but I’ve increased the ratio here to 1:6.

All Austrian & allied artillery starts the game unlimbered.  Only the Position Batteries are shown on the map.  Battalion Guns should be dispersed equally among the infantry battalions; either deployed in front or in the intervals between battalions.  The 2nd Line should also have its appropriate share of Battalion Guns.

Austrian Formation Breakpoints

Division               FMR     ⅓      ½     ¾
Colloredo (Left)        59       20     30     45
Colloredo (Right)     77        26     39     58
Forgách                      50        17     25     38
Spiznass                     44        15     22     33
Seyssel d’Aix              34        11     17     26
Nadásdy                     43        15     22     33
Buccow                       23        8      12      18
Arenberg                    22        8      11       17
Lucchese                    45        15     23     34
Right Wing§             100       –        –         –

Army                     FMR     ¼      ⅓       ½
Austrian Army         497      125    166    249

Austrian Orders

All Austrian, Bavarian and Württemberg infantry formations must start the game on Defend orders.

Nadásdy’s Division may start the game on Attack or Defend orders.

Buccow’s Division must start the game on Reserve orders.

Arenberg’s and Lucchese’s Divisions start the game off-table and will arrive as reinforcements (see below).

No orders may be changed until the Orders Phase of Turn 2.

Austrian Reinforcements

Turn 4 – Arenberg’s Infantry Division arrives on the north table edge, east of Frobelwitz.  The division is formed in a column of five battalions and is on Attack orders (mark command arrow on map).

Turn 12 – Lucchese’s Cavalry Division arrives on the north table edge, up to 24 inches west of the Briegwasser stream and is on Attack orders (mark command arrow on map).  The division is formed in two lines, with the dragoon regiments on the right flank (D1, C3, Cii, C10 & C27 in the first line and D31, D38, C12 & C25 in the second line).

If you want to maintain the fog of war, use this briefing map for the Austrians:

Terrain

The terrain is frozen, with a light covering of snow, so the terrain is easily traversable by all troop-types.

The streams are frozen and are insignificant obstacles, for decorative purposes only.  They do not affect movement.

The woodland areas are just sparse, open winter scrub with a few scattered trees.  In game terms they are treated as ‘Orchards/Vineyards’: 2/3 speed for infantry, 1/3 speed for cavalry and impassable to artillery.  They do not impede line of sight and do not act as cover.

The hills are just low, rolling rises.  They serve to block lines of sight and allow artillery units placed on them to fire overhead, but do not give a +1 melee benefit to the defender.

The villages are very open, straggling settlements, consisting mostly of gardens with a few houses.  Therefore class as ‘Woods’: 1/2 speed for infantry and only passable to other troops if they remain in column/limbered.  Villages provide a -1 cover modifier from fire for defending infantry, but no melee modifier (Flank and Rear Support modifiers are applied as normal).  Any cavalry or artillery charged while passing through a village will be automatically broken.  Villages will block line of sight, though fire will penetrate up to 2 inches.

The western ends of Leuthen and Frobelwitz are barricaded and will provide one battalion with a +1 melee modifier against attacks from the west (the game starts with an Austrian grenadier battalion defending each barricade).

The only Built-Up Sector on the map is Leuthen Church, which may hold one battalion and may not be passed through by cavalry or artillery.  This is surrounded by very strong walls and fills the centre of the village.  It may be targeted by artillery fire from the north or south, provided that the line of fire does not pass through the village.  It provides a +2 melee modifier to defending infantry.  Infantry defending Leuthen Church may not receive Flank or Rear Support, but if occupied by friendly troops, the position will provide neighbouring troops with Flank or Rear Support.

The three Württemberg Grenadier Battalions on Spiznass’ left flank are deployed behind an abatis.  This gives them a +1 melee modifier against frontal attacks.  Sadly, I only discovered this little nugget AFTER we’d played the game, but with Andy’s dice-rolling it made absolutely no difference whatsoever… 🙂

Game Length & Victory Conditi0ns

The game will last until the end of Turn 16 or until one army breaks, whichever comes first.

The Prussians MUST break the Austrian army to claim Victory (which will automatically be a Historic Victory).  If they fail to break the Austrians by the end of the game, the Austrians will be awarded Victory.

If the Austrians by some miracle, manage to break the Prussian army they may claim a Historic Victory.

Bugger…

Anyway, that’s all from me for now… Possibly terminally… 🙁

Yes, after managing to avoid the Flu-Manchu for over two years, Chairman Mao has finally got his revenge on me and Mrs Fawr!  We’re presently sweating like a Para in a spelling test, coughing like a veteran BBC presenter in a kindergarten and feeling sicker than Marshal Murat’s tailor. 🙁

Cash donations to the Jemima Fawr Recovery Fund may be paid here.

If I’m spared I’ll be back soon with the Leuthen AAR.

This entry was posted in Eighteenth Century, Games, Scenarios, Seven Years War & War of Austrian Succession, Tricorn (18th Century Shako Rules). Bookmark the permalink.

6 Responses to The Battle of Leuthen 5th December 1757: A Scenario for ‘Tricorn’

  1. Ian G. says:

    Good luck to you both.

    My wife and I survived. We hope it will be not be much more than bad colds for you as well presuming you’ve been double vacc’ed and boosted.

    I put on Leuthen at SELWG a decade or so ago. Lots of fun. Every regiment present on a ten foot / five mile table using the King of the Battlefield rules.

    Good luck with your game. I look forward to the AAR.

    • jemima_fawr says:

      Cheers Ian,

      Yes, all triple-jabbed here and I shouldn’t really be flippant about it. Thus far it is like a bad cold and fingers crossed it won’t get any worse. The worst effect thus far is that it’s forced the cancellation of a rather critical appointment for Mrs Fawr. 🙁

      Thanks, yes the game was great and fitted neatly into the time available. As mentioned, it could have gone on for rather longer with better dice-rolling on one side and more club time, so it’s one that might be worth repeating in a few years (if I’m spared…).

      Cheers,

      Mark

  2. Paul smith says:

    Hi Mark

    Thanks as usual and hope you both feel a lot better soon. Looking forward to the AAR.

    Cheers Paul

  3. Neil Youll says:

    Get well soon: this is one of the few blogs worth visiting these days. (On no: I’ve started using the phrase ‘these days’).

    • jemima_fawr says:

      Thanks Neil! Yeah, blogs were much cheaper years ago. And they were bigger. And they were polite to the older blogs… 😉

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