The Battle of Kolin, 18th June 1757: A Scenario for ‘Tricorn’

No plan survives contact with the enemy and we had planned to do our next SYW Big Game at The Carmarthen Old Guard later this month, which was to have been the Battle of Kolin.  However, our mate Phil can’t now make it, so we’re going to have to postpone it – probably until Christmas.  Instead, Andy and I are going to dig out the Napoleonics and try the new scenario I wrote during lockdown for the Second Battle of Caldiero 1805, which should still be good fun.  In the meantime, here’s my scenario for Kolin, written for my Tricorn 18th Century variant of Shako rules:

(I make no apologies, but this is another big ‘un…)

Historical Background

King Frederick II

Despite King Frederick II’s successful pre-emptive strike against Saxony in 1756, Prussia was still surrounded by strong enemies.  His strike against the Austrians in Bohemia had ended in stalemate at the Battle of Lobositz.  By March 1757, Austrian troops in Bohemia numbered well over 100,000 men and threatened at any moment to invade Saxony, Lusatia or Silesia.  To the north, Frederick was forced to keep a small corps in Pomerania to guard against any Swedish incursion, while a somewhat larger corps had been sent to East Prussia under General Lehwaldt to counter the growing Russian threat.  To the west, the French and the Holy Roman Empire were also mobilising for war, but would hopefully be countered by the Duke of Cumberland’s allied Hanoverian-British-Hessian-Brunswicker army.  Allowing his enemies to simply build up their forces and then launch an overwhelming combined assault was simply not an option and he had to strike against the most immediate threat; the Austrians.

Prince Charles of Lorraine

Frederick’s strike came in mid-April 1757 and fell upon Prince Charles of Lorraine’s main Austrian army in Bohemia.  Frederick advanced in four columns; his own column advanced from Dresden up the western bank of the Elbe, Bevern’s column descended from Lusatia on the eastern side of the Elbe, Prince Moritz advanced from western Saxony and Schwerin’s corps attacked from Silesia.  All were aimed at the Bohemian capital of Prague, which was also the largest fortress in the region and base for Lorraine’s army.

The Battle of Prague was fought outside the city walls on 6th May and proved to be an extremely bloody affair, notably resulting in the loss of two of the greatest commanders of the age: the Austrian Marshal Browne and the Prussian Marshal Schwerin.  The battle was a victory for Frederick’s Prussians, though proved not to be the knock-out blow that he’d hoped for and the Austrians were able to withdraw behind the city walls, forcing Frederick to besiege the city.

The death of Schwerin


However, Frederick did not have time for a siege!  A new threat had emerged in the form of Marshal Daun’s Austrian army, which was advancing from the south to reinforce Lorraine’s army.  However, arriving just too late to intervene, Daun was forced to fall back from Frederick’s superior force around Prague.  Frederick, hoping to force Lorraine to capitulate before dealing with Daun, dispatched a corps under General Bevern to observe and obstruct Daun’s movements.

By mid-May, Daun had been reinforced by Serbelloni’s corps, which had remained idle at Königgrätz, by four regiments of Saxon cavalry sent from Poland under General Nostitz, by 16,000 men under General Bretlach, who had escaped the defeat at Prague and lastly by 7,000 light troops under the command of General Nádasdy, who had marched up from Olmütz.  Daun now outnumbered Bevern by a considerable margin and finally with sufficient forces for the task, he was ordered to relieve Prague.  Lorraine was simultaneously ordered to attempt a break-out and link up with Daun.


Seeing the growing threat, Frederick continued to send reinforcements to Bevern and by 4th June, Bevern had 12,100 foot and 12,400 horse against Daun’s 26,000 foot, 13,500 horse and more than 6,000 light troops (hussars and grenzer).  Despite the mismatch in numbers, Bevern was able to hold off Daun and even forced Daun back toward his base at Königgrätz, thus persuading Frederick to march east with a sizeable portion of his besieging force and finally defeat Daun’s relief effort (a dangerous gamble, with over 50,000 Austrian troops trapped within Prague).

However, by the time Frederick started marching, Daun had finally amassed his full strength of 54,000 men and was marching westward again, forcing Bevern back along the Kaiserstrasse arterial road to Neu-Kolin.


By 14th June, Bevern had been joined by Frederick’s corps and both sides now began probing each other’s positions.  At last on 17th June, Frederick was facing Daun’s army, which was deployed facing west on high ground a short distance to the west of Neu-Kolin, with its right flank resting on the Poborz Hill, overlooking the Kaiserstrasse.  Frederick decided that evening to use the Kaiserstrasse to march around the Austrians’ flank and attack their rear near the village of Krzeczor; a somewhat ‘bold’ move, given that this move would be entirely under observation from the heights!  Anticipating this move before it even began, Daun started moving his formations under cover of darkness, redeploying his army to face north along a line from Poborz Hill to Przerovsky Hill, with his reserve formations deployed at a right-angle to the left, occupying most of the original positions.

Unaware that his plan had been anticipated, Frederick began marching his army at daybreak on 18th June.  As the army advanced through thick fog, they encountered little opposition except retiring groups of grenzer and occasional parties of hussars.  At the head of the column was General Zieten with 50 squadrons of hussars, closely followed by Hülsen with four battalions of infantry and four squadrons of dragoons.


As the fog cleared, the sun began to beat down and at 1030hrs, Frederick halted his hot and weary army on the Kaiserstrasse, to the immediate north of Daun’s positions.  Observing from the upper floor of a roadside inn (variously identified in accounts as the ‘Novi Mesto’, ‘Slate-Slunce’ or ‘U-Slunce’), Frederick could see Austrians on the high ground at Poborz and Przerovsky, but no idea regarding the full extent of Daun’s positions.  Nevertheless, he was determined to press on with his plan and at 1200hrs gave his orders for the attack:

Zieten would continue to push Nádasdy’s Austrian hussars back beyond the villages of Krzeczor and Kutlire, ensuring that they could not interfere with the main assault, which would be spearheaded by Hülsen (now reinforced by six grenadier battalions).  Hülsen would capture the village of Krzeczor and the hill and oak-wood beyond, thus turning the Austrian right flank and paving the way for a further assault by the massed Prussian heavy cavalry and the rest of the infantry under Prince Moritz of Anhalt-Dessau, who would progressively attack obliquely around the Austrian flank.

Prince Moritz

However, at no point in his plan did Frederick countenance the possibility of the Austrians reacting to his moves!  The three-hour halt in the Prussian march had given Daun valuable time to extend his right flank; he filled the forward villages, copses and a hundred year-old Swedish earthwork with Grenzer and established a powerful battery on the Krzeczor Hill.

Behind the hill and hidden from Prussian view, Daun placed the Grenadier Reserve, General Nostitz’s Saxon cavalry brigade and 1,000 Kommandierten cavalry (the duty detachments of the day from all the cuirassier and dragoon regiments in the army).  As it was clear that the left flank was no longer under threat, the divisions of Wied, Starhemberg and Sincère, as well as the bulk of the cavalry under Serbelloni, were already marching from the left flank to meet the Prussians near Krzeczor, yet all hidden from Frederick’s view.

Although Zieten had pushed Nádasty’s hussars back as planned, Hülsen’s attack started to unravel almost immediately.  Kutlire, Krzeczor and the ‘Swedish Works’ proved to be strongly held by the 2nd Banalisten Grenz Regiment, who inflicted heavy losses on the approaching Prussians, particularly in the vicinity of the strongly-held church.  Daun, watching from the heights, is said to have exclaimed “My God!  I think the King is going to lose today!”

Nevertheless, the seemingly-unstoppable Prussian infantry steadily pushed through Krzeczor and within half an hour finally emerged in the open ground beyond; whereupon they were set upon by a mass of Austrian hussars that Zieten’s cavalry had missed!  Zieten’s cavalry soon came up to support Hülsen, but were in turn charged by yet more Austrian hussars.  As the indecisive scrap between the opposing hussars continued on the flank, Hülsen again resumed the advance, but soon came under increasing opposition from the Austrian Grenadier Reserve and Beck’s rallied grenzer in the vicinity of the Oak Wood.  Hülsen’s supporting artillery had also been silenced by the large Austrian battery established on Krzeczor Hill.  To make matters worse, Wied’s large Austrian reserve infantry division and Serbelloni’s massive cavalry wing were also now deploying to oppose Hülsen.

In the meantime, Frederick had halted his army once again, to await the outcome of the flank-assault.  For an hour, the Prussian infantry stood in column along the Kaisertstrasse, plagued by long-range sniping from swarms of grenzer hiding among the tall crops, as well as by desultory long-range artillery fire from the heights.  At last, orders came from the King for Tresckow’s infantry to join the assault; they were to attack up the northern slope of Krzeczor Hill, thus supporting Hülsen’s right flank.  The rest of the army was for the time being, to be refused, though the intention was still to march them to the left and exploit the hoped-for success of Hülsen’s attack.

However, fate was to play a hand.  One of Frederick’s adjutants ordered one of Bevern’s brigadiers, Generalmajor von Manstein, to clear away the grenzer to his front.  Manstein was reluctant to do so, as the grenzer weren’t actually causing much harm and he needed his men ready to launch their planned attack as soon as orders arrived from the King.  However, the adjutant became more insistent and invoked the King’s authority.  Manstein had no choice, so ordered the nearest battalion (II./’Bornstedt’ (IR 20)) to drive off the grenzer.  However, the men of the ‘Bornstedt’ Regiment, having been plagued by the grenzer for hours, were a little over-enthusiastic in their pursuit of their tormentors!  In a short while, the regiment’s I. Battalion had also joined the hunt, followed by a battalion of the ‘Anhalt-Dessau’ Regiment (IR 3) and eventually the entire division was launching an un-ordered and uncoordinated assault on Chotzemitz and the Przerovsky Hill!


At Krzerczor meanwhile, Hülsen was embroiled in a fierce firefight with Wied’s infantry.  Both sides were taking heavy losses, but the arrival of Starhemberg’s division in support of Wied threatened to tip the balance in the Austrians’ favour.  Serbelloni’s cavalry had also arrived, but were forced to hold ground while they waited for Sincère’s infantry to arrive.  Cavalry are never well-suited to holding ground and Hülsen’s artillery made the stationary Austrian cavalry pay a heavy price for that decision.  At last, the ‘Münchow’ Fusilier Regiment (IR 36), along with two grenadier battalions, managed to capture the Oak Wood, but without support and under fresh attack, were soon forced to fall back.

Tresckow meanwhile, was also paying a heavy price as he advanced up the slope into the teeth of Austrian canister.  Nevertheless, his infantry finally reached the top of the hill, only to be checked by freshly-arrived battalions of Sincère’s division.  Repeated assaults by Tresckow’s battalions failed to make any headway and Daun finally had a solid line of infantry from Przerovsky Hill to Krzeczor Hill.  Serbelloni’s cavalry at last were able to fall back to the rear, out of sight from the Prussian guns.  Buoyed up by their success thus far in repulsing the Prussian assault and encouraged by further successes by Nádasdy’s troopers on the flank, Wied’s division advanced, pushing Hülsen’s infantry all the way back to Krzeczor village.  It seemed as though Daun was about to have his victory.  However, the pendulum was about to swing back.


On the Austrian right flank, Nádasdy had had some success in holding off Zieten, thanks in no small part to the thousand Kommandierten heavy cavalry.  However, Krosigk’s Prussian heavy cavalry (‘Prinz von Preussen’ Cuirassiers (CR 2), ‘Rochow’ Cuirassiers (CR 8), and ‘Normann’ Dragoons (DR 1)) had now passed Krzeczor village, forcing the Austrian horse to fall back once again.  The way cleared of enemy cavalry, Krosigk wheeled his troopers around the village and smashed into Wied’s flank.  The first battalions broke immediately.  Seeing the whitecoats starting to panic, Hülsen’s infantry charged again and soon Wied’s men were utterly broken!  Tragically, Krosigk was mortally wounded at the moment of his greatest triumph, but the Colonel of the ‘Rochow’ Cuirassiers, one Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz, immediately took command and continued the rout of the Austrian infantry.

Serbelloni’s Austrian horse meanwhile, were still in the process of falling back into the reserve line following their bombardment by the Prussian gunners and were unable to intervene.  However, two regiments; the ‘Kolowrat-Krakowsky’ Dragoons (DR 37) and the Saxon Carabiniergarde, had just arrived from the left flank to reinforce Serbelloni.  They managed to push forward between Starhemberg’s infantry battalions and attempted to save the situation.  Their efforts were in vain as Seydlitz, brilliantly controlling his marauding cuirassiers, defeated them in short order!  With friendly cavalry fleeing through their lines, another three regiments (two of Sincère’s and one of Starhemberg’s) were broken before the rampage was finally brought to a halt by the Austrian ‘Botta’ Infantry Regiment (IR 12), who formed a new line at 90 degrees to Sincère’s main line and coolly delivered volleys into the ‘Normann’ Dragoons as they attempted to roll up the Austrian flank.  Nostitz’s Saxon chevauxlégers then finally managed to drive off the blown Prussian cavalry.

Daun’s army had almost been destroyed by just three regiments of Prussian cavalry, but with no reserves coming up in support, Seydlitz was forced to break off the attack.  Serbelloni once again plugged the gap with his cavalry, who again became magnets for the Prussian artillery.  Safe from pursuit, Wied’s battalions began to rally.  Daun in the meantime, ordered Puebla to bring his uncommitted infantry over to form a continuous line on Andlau’s left and ordered Stampach to launch an attack with his cavalry on the right flank of the Prussian assault.

Frederick in the meantime, was preoccupied with the repeated efforts by Tresckow’s infantry to assault the northern slopes and was probably unaware of the dramatic events beyond Krzeczor.  With Chotzemitz finally cleared of grenzer, Frederick ordered every last uncommitted battalion on the right wing to launch an assault on the Krzeczor Hill.  However, despite repeated attempts, this assault fared no better than the previous efforts.  At one point, Frederick was seen to draw his sword and lead the ‘Anhalt-Dessau’ Regiment (IR 3) forward.  However, the regiment had other ideas and hadn’t moved.  An ADC rode up to Frederick, asking “Sire! Will you attack the battery on your own?”  Enraged, the King is said to have shouted at the reluctant infantry, “Rogues!  Do you want to live forever?!”

With the Prussian infantry now fully engaged, Stampach began his advance against the Prussian right flank.  However, Schönaich’s Prussian cavalry were in a good blocking position and were able to frustrate Stampach’s manoeuvre, though the Austrian ‘Hessen-Darmstädt’ Dragoons (DR 19) managed to slip through.  The dragoons fell upon a single, isolated battalion which happened to be none other than Frederick’s personal bodyguard, the I. (Leibgarde) Battalion of the Garde-Regiment (IR 15).  Finding themselves surrounded by enemy cavalry, the Guardsmen managed to turn their rear rank about to defend the rear, but were very badly cut up and even lost their pair of battalion guns to the dragoons.

The attack on Krzeczor Hill was finally starting to bear fruit, as the fresh injection of fresh battalions had captured the top of the hill and driven a wedge into the Austrian lines.  However, the infantry of both sides were now fatigued from the battle and the hot weather and the Prussian attack had ground to a halt once more.  Frederick ordered forward the uncommitted cavalry division of the 79 year-old General Pennavaire.  His four cuirassier regiments now swept up the slope between Bristvi and Chotzemitz and up, over the hill.  Serbelloni ordered one of his own cuirassier brigades to meet them and the two cavalry formations thundered toward each other.  For some reason, the Austrian cuirassiers broke off their attack at the last moment and the Prussian cuirassiers charged on toward Starhemberg’s infantry.  However, the Prussian horses were now blown from their long ride over the hill and instead of charging home, the cuirassiers stopped short and fired pistols ineffectually at the Austrian lines, receiving a devastating volley in return!

At that moment, Serbelloni struck!  Pennavaire’s cuirassiers, already blown and reeling from infantry volleys, were now charged from the front and on both flanks by an overwhelming number of Austrian and Saxon cavalry and were utterly routed, being pursued as far as the Kaiserstrasse!  The ‘Prinz von Preussen’ Cuirassiers (CR 2) from Seydlitz’s command attempted to save the situation but were broken by fire from Starhemberg’s infantry and artillery and also joined the rout.  These fleeing cuirassiers disrupted Tresckow’s infantry as they fled, leaving them in no state to withstand being attacked from the rear by the Austrian and Saxon cavalry, who were now returning from their pursuit of Pennavaire.  Three battalions were completely destroyed and Tresckow himself was captured.

As evening started to fall, Frederick made a last roll of the dice.  Assembling a force of seventeen battalions and the ‘Driesen’ Cuirassiers (CR 7) from the right flank and Normann’s pair of uncommitted dragoon regiments from the left, he launched yet another assault on the Krzeczor Hill.  This new assault actually achieved some success against the exhausted Austrians, but once again the superb ‘Botta’ Infantry Regiment and the ‘Soro’ Grenadiers held firm.  Andlau’s division now advanced from Przerovsky Hill and the Prussian infantry were forced to wheel to their right to meet them.  This gave Serbelloni the perfect opportunity to charge the open Prussian left flank with as many cavalry as he could muster.

Serbelloni’s charge was devastating.  Several battalions on the left flank of the line were ridden down and massacred, while the Leibgarde Battalion found themselves surrounded and having to fight back-to-back for the second time that day.  The rest of the line meanwhile, found themselves assaulted from the front by Andlau’s infantry and also soon joined the rout.  The ‘Driesen’ Cuirassiers were swept away along with the infantry, while Normann’s dragoons, charging through the narrow gap between Bristvi and the Swedish Works, found themselves outflanked and routed in turn.

Hülsen meanwhile, was still fighting in the Oak Wood, having captured it yet again while the battle raged on the Krzeczor Hill.  However, he was coming under increased pressure from the rallied battalions of Wied’s division and now had new enemies appearing out of the smoke from Krzeczor Hill.  As news reached him of the disaster on the hill, Hülsen was forced to join the retreat.  Zieten meanwhile, had been doing his best to hold off Nádasdy’s hussars and had assumed the battle to be going to plan but was now horrified to receive fresh orders, telling him to cover the army’s retreat!  Nevertheless, he followed his orders to the letter and a charge by the ‘Warnery’, ‘Seydlitz’ and ‘Werner’ Hussars dissuaded the Austrians (who were in any case, utterly exhausted) from any serious attempt at pursuit.

Frederick meanwhile, as at Mollwitz in 1740, had already exited stage-left, escorted by the squadron of the Garde du Corps Cuirassiers.  What was left of the army was ordered to retreat to northern Bohemia and the corps besieging Prague was ordered to break off the siege and rejoin the King.

Later that evening, the King was seen sitting disconsolately at the side of the road, absent-mindedly drawing in the dust with his stick, when a cuirassier brought him a drink of water in his hat, saying “Drink Majesty, and let battles be battles; it’s well that you are safe.  Let us trust in God that it will soon be our turn to conquer!”

The casualties on both sides had been horrific.  Of 54,000 men, the Austrians had lost 8,114 men, of whom 1,002 were dead and the rest being reported as wounded or missing.  The Prussian troops had lost an astonishing 13,776 out of 33,000 men, of whom 5,380 were taken prisoner, including all the non-walking wounded.  The remaining 8,396 were all dead or missing!  The Austrians also captured 45 guns and 22 colours.

However, the old cuirassier was right; Frederick had just suffered his first defeat, but it would soon be his turn to conquer… And sooner than anyone could have realised.

Order of Battle of the Prussian Army
King Friedrich II

(Excellent – 3 ADCs)

Advance Guard – Generallieutenant Hans Joachim von Zieten (Excellent)
I. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Zieten’ (Leib) Hussars (HR 2) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Zieten’ (Leib) Hussars (HR 2) (elite) [5/2]
I. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Werner’ (Capucin) Hussars (HR 6) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Werner’ (Capucin) Hussars (HR 6) (elite) [5/2]
I. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Puttkamer’ (Weisse) Hussars (HR 4) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Puttkamer’ (Weisse) Hussars (HR 4) (elite) [5/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Szekely’ (Grünne) Hussars (HR 1) (elite) [5/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Seydlitz’ (Rote) Hussars (HR 8) [4/1]
I. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Wartenberg’ Hussars (HR 3) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn (5 Sqns), ‘Wartenberg’ Hussars (HR 3) (elite) [5/2]

Advance Guard Support – Generalmajor Johann Dietrich von Hülsen (Good)
I. Bn, ‘Münchow’ Füsilier Regiment (IR 36) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Münchow’ Füsilier Regiment (IR 36) (elite) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Schultze’ Infantry Regiment (IR 29) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Schultze’ Infantry Regiment (IR 29) (elite) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Wangenheim’ (47/g7) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Möllendorf’ (9/10) [5/2]
I. Standing Grenadier Battalion ‘Kahlden’ (g1/g3/ng) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Finck’ (13/26) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Woldow’ (12/39) [5/2]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Nymschöfsky’ (33/42) [5/2]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]

Cuirassier Reserve – Generallieutenant Peter Ernst von Pennavaire (Good)
5 Sqns, Leibregiment zu Pferde Cuirassiers (CR 3) [6/2 – Large Unit]
5 Sqns, Leib-Carabiniere Cuirassiers (CR 11) [6/2 – Large Unit]
5 Sqns, ‘Kyau’ Cuirassiers (CR 12) [6/2 – Large Unit]
5 Sqns, ‘Krockow’ Cuirassiers (CR 1) [6/2 – Large Unit]

Right Wing Cavalry – Generalmajor George Phillip von Schönaich (Average)
5 Sqns, ‘Driesen’ Cuirassiers (CR 7) [6/2 – Large Unit]
5 Sqns, ‘Meinicke’ Dragoons (DR 3) [5/2 – Large Unit]
5 Sqns, ‘Schönaich’ Cuirassiers (CR 6) } [6/2 – Large Unit]
1 Sqn, Garde du Corps Cuirassiers (CR 13) }

Left Wing Cavalry – Generalmajor Christian Siegfried von Krosigk (Good)
5 Sqns, ‘Stechow’ Dragoons (DR 11) [5/2 – Large Unit]
5 Sqns, ‘Normann’ Dragoons (DR 1) [5/2 – Large Unit]
5 Sqns, ‘Rochow’ Cuirassiers (CR 8) [6/2 – Large Unit]
5 Sqns, ‘Prinz von Preussen’ (Gelbe-Reitere) Cuirassiers (CR 2) [6/2 – Large Unit]

Dragoon Reserve – Generalmajor Karl Ludwig von Normann (Good)
5 Sqns, ‘Katte’ Dragoons (DR 4) [5/2 – Large Unit]
5 Sqns, ‘Blanckensee’ Dragoons (DR 2) [5/2 – Large Unit]

Infantry Centre – General der Infanterie Prinz Moritz von Anhalt-Dessau

Left Wing – Generallieutenant Joachim Friedrich von Tresckow (Average)
I. Bn, ‘Alt-Bevern’ Infantry Regiment (IR 7) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Alt-Bevern’ Infantry Regiment (IR 7) (elite) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Prinz Heinrich’ Füsilier-Regiment (IR 35) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Prinz Heinrich’ Füsilier-Regiment (IR 35) (elite) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Hülsen’ Infantry Regiment (IR 21) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Hülsen’ Infantry Regiment (IR 21) (elite) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Wied’ Füsilier Regiment (IR 41) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Wied’ Füsilier Regiment (IR 41) [4/1]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]

Right Wing – Generallieutenant August Wilhelm Bevern Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneberg (Excellent)
I. Bn, ‘Anhalt’ Infantry Regiment (IR 3) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Anhalt’ Infantry Regiment (IR 3) (elite) [5/2]
III. Bn, ‘Anhalt’ Infantry Regiment (IR 3) (elite) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Bornstedt’ Infantry Regiment (IR 20) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Bornstedt’ Infantry Regiment (IR 20) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Manteuffel’ Infantry Regiment (IR 17) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Manteuffel’ Infantry Regiment (IR 17) (elite) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Fürst Moritz’ Infantry Regiment (IR 22) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Fürst Moritz’ Infantry Regiment (IR 22) (elite) [5/2]
I. Bn, ‘Kalckstein’ Infantry Regiment (IR 25) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Kalckstein’ Infantry Regiment (IR 25) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Kreytzen’ Füsilier Regiment (IR 40) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Kreytzen’ Füsilier Regiment (IR 40) [4/1]
I. (Leibgarde) Bn, Garde Infantry Regiment (IR 15) [6/2]
III. Standing Grenadier Battalion ‘Gemmingen’ (41/44) [5/2]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]

Artillery Reserve
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]

Prussian Notes

1. The Artillery Reserve is limbered on the road, alongside the leading battalions of Tresckow’s Division.

2. The units above are for the most part, listed from the left of the line.

3. The Garde du Corps (CR 13) only had one squadron present (the other two squadrons had been left at Prague), so is too weak to be represented as a separate unit.  Its strength is therefore absorbed into the rest of Schönaich’s command.

4. The divisions of Ziethen, Hülsen and Schönaich start the game deployed in line.  All other divisions are deployed in column along the Kaiserstrasse.  All guns are limbered.

5.  Frederick may give his divisions any orders at the start of the game.  Note however, that no new orders may be transmitted before the Orders Phase at the end of Turn 2.

6.  The ‘Stechow’ Dragoons (DR 11) were officially under Zieten’s command, but they were under Hülsen’s command during the morning and then appear to have started the battle deployed alongside Krosigk’s heavy cavalry, so I’ve grouped them with Krosigk for game purposes (though they spent virtually the entire battle unengaged on the Prussian left flank).  Feel free to transfer them back to Zieten or Hülsen if you prefer.

7.  The divisions of Zieten, Hülsen, Krosigk and Schönaich start the scenario deployed in line.  All other formations are deployed in column along the Kaiserstrasse.  All Prussian artillery is limbered.

Formation Breakpoints

Division                   FMR    ⅓    ½    ¾
Zieten                             49      17    25    37
Hülsen                           56      19    28    42
Pennavaire                   24       8     12     18
Schönaich                     17       6      9      13
Krosigk                         22       8      11     17
Normann                      10       4      5      8
Tresckow                      44      15    22    33
Bevern                           78     26    39    59
Artillery Reserve*       15       –       –       –

Army                        FMR    ¼    ⅓    ½
Prussian Army            313      79  105  157

* The MR value of any broken Artillery Reserve Batteries are added when assessing overall Army losses.

Order of Battle of the Austrian Army
Feldmarschall Leopold Joseph Graf von Daun

(Good – 2 ADCs)

Light Troops – General der Kavallerie Franz Leopold Graf Nádasdy (Excellent)
5 Sqns, ‘Nádasdy’ Hussars (H 11) [4/1]
6 Sqns, ‘Kálnoky’ Hussars (H 17) [4/1]
5 Sqns, ‘Jazygier-Kumanier’ Hussars (H 36) [4/1]
3 Sqns, ‘Baranyay’ Hussars (H 30) } [4/1]
2 Sqns, ‘Esterházy’ Hussars (H 24) }
2 Sqns, ‘Hadik’ Hussars (H ii) }
6 Sqns, ‘Festetics’ Hussars (H 32) [4/1]
6 Sqns, ‘Morocz’ Hussars (H 35) [4/1]
1 Sqn, ‘Desewffy’ Hussars (H 34) } [4/1]
2 Sqns, ‘Banalisten’ Grenz-Hussars (H 42) }
3 Sqns, ‘Kaiser’ Hussars (H 2) [4/1]

Advance Guard – Generalfeldwachtmeister Phillip Levin Freiherr von Beck (Average)
3 Sqns, ‘Kaiser’ Hussars (H 2) } [4/1]
1 Sqn, ‘Warasdiner’ Grenz-Hussars (H 41) }
2 Sqns, ‘Karlstädter’ Grenz-Hussars (H 40) }
I. Bn, Slavonisch-Gradiskaner Grenzer [3/0]
II. Bn, Slavonisch-Gradiskaner Grenzer [3/0 – 2x Skirmishers]
I. Bn, ‘2. Banalisten’ Grenzer [3/0]
II. Bn, ‘2. Banalisten’ Grenzer [3/0 – 2x Skirmishers]
Battalion Guns [2/0]

Detached Grenzer (from Beck’s Brigade) (Average)
I. Bn, Slavonisch-Broder Grenzer [3/0 – 2x Skirmishers]
II. Bn, Slavonisch-Broder Grenzer [3/0 – 2x Skirmishers]
I. Bn, Karlstädter-Szluiner’ Grenzer [3/0]
II. Bn, Karlstädter-Szluiner’ Grenzer [3/0 – 2x Skirmishers]

Saxon Cavalry – Generalmajor Friedrich Moritz Graf von Nostitz-Rieneck (Excellent)
3 Sqns, Saxon ‘Prinz Albrecht’ Chevauxlégers [5/2]
4 Sqns, Saxon ‘Graf Brühl’ Chevauxlégers [5/2]
4 Sqns, Saxon ‘Prinz Karl’ Chevauxlégers [5/2]
Austrian Kommandierten Cavalry Brigade ‘Starhemberg’ [6/2 – Large Unit]

Grenadier Reserve – Obristlieutenant Marquis de Fiorenza (Good)
Grenadier Battalion ‘Fiorenza’ (6 grenadier companies) [5/2 – Large Unit]
Grenadier Battalion ‘Soro’ (4 grenadier companies) [5/2]
Kommandierten Infantry Battalion [4/1 – Large Unit]
Battalion Guns [2/0]

Right Wing & Reserve Cavalry – General der Cavallerie Johann Baptist Graf Serbelloni (Good)
6 Sqns, ‘Birkenfeld’ Cuirassiers (C 23) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Württemberg’ Dragoons (D 38) [5/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Kolowrat-Krakowski’ Dragoons (D 37) [5/2]
6 sqns, ‘Kalckreuth’ Cuirassiers (C 22) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Prinz Savoyen’ Dragoons (D 9) [5/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Serbelloni’ Cuirassiers (C 12) [6/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Porporati’ Dragoons (D 39) [5/2]
Elite Regiment ‘Burghausen’ (massed Carabiniers & Horse Grenadiers) [6/2 – Large Unit]
Elite Regiment ‘Panovsky’ (massed Carabiniers & Horse Grenadiers) [6/2 – Large Unit]
6 Sqns, ‘Schmerzing’ Cuirassiers (C 20) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Infant von Portugal’ Cuirassiers (C 5) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Ligne’ Dragoons (D 31) [5/2]
2 Sqns, Saxon Carabiniergarde Cuirassiers [6/2 – mark 1 casualty at start]

Left Wing Cavalry – General der Cavallerie Carl Freiherr Karger von Stampach (Average)
4 Sqns, ‘Hessen-Darmstädt’ Dragoons (D 19) [5/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Gelhay’ Cuirassiers (C i) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Alt-Modena’ Cuirassiers (C iii) [6/2]
6 Sqns, ‘Sachsen-Gotha’ Dragoons (D 28) [5/2]
5 Sqns, ‘Jung-Modena’ Dragoons (D 13) [5/2]
6 Sqns, ‘O’Donnell’ Cuirassiers (C 14) [6/2]

Right Wing Infantry – Generalfeldzeugmeister Ernst Dietrich Freiherr Marschall von Burgholzhausen

First Line – Feldmarschallieutenant Franz Joseph Freiherr von Andlau (Good)
I. Bn, ‘Erzherzog Carl’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 2) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Erzherzog Carl’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 2) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Moltke’ Infantry Regiment (IR 13) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Moltke’ Infantry Regiment (IR 13) [4/1]
III. Bn, ‘Moltke’ Infantry Regiment (IR 13) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Puebla’ Infantry Regiment (IR 26) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Puebla’ Infantry Regiment (IR 26) [4/1]
III. Bn, ‘Puebla’ Infantry Regiment (IR 26) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Mercy-Argentau’ Infantry Regiment (IR 56) [4/1]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]

Second Line – Feldmarschallieutenant Emmanuel Michael Graf von Starhemberg (Average)
I. Bn, ‘Haller’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 31) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Haller’ Hungarian Infantry Regiment (IR 31) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Gaisruck’ Infantry Regiment (IR 42) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Gaisruck’ Infantry Regiment (IR 42) [4/1]
III. Bn, ‘Gaisruck’ Infantry Regiment (IR 42) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Neipperg’ Infantry Regiment (IR 7) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Neipperg’ Infantry Regiment (IR 7) [4/1]
III. Bn, ‘Neipperg’ Infantry Regiment (IR 7) [4/1]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]

Left Wing Infantry – Generalfeldzeugmeister Anton Graf von Colloredo zu Waldsee

First Line – Feldmarschallieutenant Anton von Portugal Graf von Puebla (Average)
I. Bn, ‘Arenberg’ Infantry Regiment (IR 21) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Arenberg’ Infantry Regiment (IR 21) [4/1]
III. Bn, ‘Arenberg’ Infantry Regiment (IR 21) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Thürheim’ Infantry Regiment (IR 25) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Thürheim’ Infantry Regiment (IR 25) [4/1]
III. Bn, ‘Thürheim’ Infantry Regiment (IR 25) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Leopold Daun’ Infantry Regiment (IR 59) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Leopold Daun’ Infantry Regiment (IR 59) [4/1]
III. Bn, ‘Leopold Daun’ Infantry Regiment (IR 59) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Harrach’ Infantry Regiment (IR 47) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Harrach’ Infantry Regiment (IR 47) [4/1]
I. Bn, Warasdiner-Kreutzer Grenzer [3/0 – 2x Skirmishers]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]

Second Line – Feldmarschallieutenant Claudius Freiherr von Sincère (Average)
I. Bn, ‘Deutschmeister’ Infantry Regiment (IR 4) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Deutschmeister’ Infantry Regiment (IR 4) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Baden-Baden’ Infantry Regiment (IR 23) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Baden-Baden’ Infantry Regiment (IR 23) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Botta’ Infantry Regiment (IR 12) (elite) [5/2]
II. Bn, ‘Botta’ Infantry Regiment (IR 12) (elite) [5/2]
III. Bn, ‘Botta’ Infantry Regiment (IR 12) (elite) [5/2]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]


Division of Feldmarschallieutenant Friedrich Georg Heinrich Graf von Wied-Runkel (Good)
I. Bn, ‘Los Rios’ Infantry Regiment (IR 9) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Salm-Salm’ Infantry Regiment (IR 14) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Salm-Salm’ Infantry Regiment (IR 14) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Platz’ Infantry Regiment (IR 43) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Starhemberg’ Infantry Regiment (IR 24) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘D’Arberg’ Infantry Regiment (IR 55) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Sachsen-Gotha’ Infantry Regiment (IR 30) [4/1]
II. Bn, ‘Mercy-Argentau’ Infantry Regiment (IR 56) [4/1]
I. Bn, ‘Prinz de Ligne’ Infantry Regiment (IR 38) [4/1]
Battalion Guns [2/0]
Battalion Guns [2/0]


Krzeczor Hill Battery
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]

Przerovsky Hill Battery
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]

Reserve Artillery
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]
Heavy Battery [3/0]

Austrian Notes

1.  The average Austrian cavalry regimental strength on the day was actually quite a bit lower than that of the Prussians (around 500 men, versus 750 men), so on this occasion they don’t class as Large Units.  The exceptions are the two Elite Regiments and Starhemberg’s brigade of Kommandierten Cavalry (which was around 1,000 strong and was formed from the duty detachments of the day).

2.  The actual cavalry order of battle bears little resemblance to the theoretical order of battle: Serbelloni’s cavalry wing was massively reinforced by the addition of Castiglione’s Brigade (C23 & D38) and the Saxon Carabinergarde from Köbell’s brigade of the army reserve, two regiments of combined elite companies and two regiments (C12 & D3) from Stampach’s wing. Stampach meanwhile received the remainder of Köbell’s Brigade (D13 & C14) from the army reserve.

3.  The average infantry battalion strength on both sides was roughly equal, being a little over 600 men.  The Austrians don’t therefore class as Large Units for this scenario. The exceptions to this rule are the Kommandierten Battalion and Grenadier Battalion ‘Fiorenza’.

4.  The Saxon Carabiniergarde Regiment is sorely understrength with only two of its four squadrons present, so mark off one casualty at the start of the game.

5.  The divisions of Nádasdy, Beck, Nostitz, Andlau, Starhemberg, Puebla and Stampach, as well as the Grenadier Reserve, all start the game deployed in line and may unlimber their battalion guns.  All other divisions are deployed in column, as shown on the map, with limbered battalion guns.  The Przerovsky Hill and Krzeczor Hill Batteries are unlimbered and the Reserve Batteries are limbered.

6.  Ignore the command radius rules for Grenzer skirmishers in this scenario.  The forward-deployed skirmishers may start the game within skirmisher range of the Prussian column.

7.  Daun may give his divisions any orders at the start of the game.  Note however, that no new orders may be transmitted before the Orders Phase at the end of Turn 2.

8.  The location of the Kommandierten Infantry Battalion is something of a mystery.  Sources show it variously as under the command of Beck, with Nádasdy on the right flank, with Puebla on the left flank and fighting with the grenadiers in the Oak Wood.  I’ve decided to place it in the Oak Wood, under the command of the Grenadier Reserve, but feel free to attach the battalion to any other command.

9.  On a similar note, I’ve no idea where the two regiments (Burghausen’s & Panovsky’s) of massed elite companies (Carabiniers and Horse Grenadiers) were stationed at the start of the battle.  They do appear later in the battle, fighting in the area of Krzeczor Hill alongside Serbelloni’s cavalry, so I’ve arbitrarily placed them in the centre-rear and under Serbelloni’s command.  Note that a lot of accounts refer to the Kommandierten Brigade as being elite companies, but this was not necessarily the case; they were the duty cavalry detachments of the day (picquets, etc), some of whom may have been from the elite companies.

10.  Five battalions on the left flank of Puebla’s division (i.e. 2 bns of ‘Harrach’ (IR 47) and 3 bns of ‘Leopold Daun’ (IR 59)) ‘are off-table at the start of the game.  They will appear, conformed to Puebla’s left flank, when Puebla’s division moves.  Alternatively, in order to simplify matters, they could be deployed at the start of the game, as a second line for Puebla (or add an extra foot to the table!).

11.  Some weak hussar units, particularly the Grenz-Hussar regiments and small detachments of regiments, have been combined with others to make viable units.  So note that the number of hussar units in the game doesn’t match the number of regimental contingents present.

12.  It’s not clear if the Austrian ‘heavy guns’ were actually all heavy (i.e. 12pdr or heavier).  Some of them may have been 6pdr position batteries.  The term ‘heavy artillery’ was often used to describe position batteries as opposed to battalion guns, regardless of calibre and could sometimes include 6pdrs (especially long-barreled ‘heavy’ 6pdrs).  However, given the considerable damage caused by the Austrian batteries during this battle, I’ve classed them all as heavies.

13.  If preferred, Nádasdy’s command may be split into two divisions, each of four hussar units.  These are commanded by Hadik (Good) and Morocz (Average).

Formation Breakpoints

Division                    FMR    ⅓    ½    ¾
Beck*                               18       6       9      5
Detached Grenzer*       12       4       6      9
Nádasdy                          32      11     16    24
Nostitz                             21       7      11     16
Grenadier Reserve        16       6      8      12
Serbelloni                        70     24    35    53
Stampach                        33     11      16    25
Andlau                             40     14     20   30
Starhemberg                  36     12      18    27
Puebla*                           53      18     27    40
Sincère                            35      12     18    27
Wied                                40     14     20    30
Artillery Reserve**       30      –       –        –

Army                          FMR   ¼      ⅓     ½
Austrian Army              436    109   146   218

* Two broken Skirmisher stands from the same Grenzer Battalion count as 3 Morale Points when assessing formation losses. ‘Odd’ Skirmisher stands don’t count. Note that some battalions are formed in close order, defending strongpoints.

** The MR value of any broken Artillery Reserve Batteries are added when assessing overall Army losses.

Scenario Length

The game will finish at the end of Turn 24.

Victory Conditions

A Historic Victory will go to the side that breaks the enemy army.

If neither side has broken at the end of Turn 20, the side with sole possession of two of the three key pieces of terrain (Kzeczor Hill, Przerovsky Hill and the Oak Wood) may claim an Indecisive Victory.

If neither side has broken and if neither side has sole possession of two key locations, the battle will be declared a Draw.

Optional Fog-of-War

If you want to keep the Prussian player guessing as to the true Austrian dispositions, DO NOT show them the full scenario map.  Instead of deploying the whole Austrian force at the start, deploy only those formations that are visible from Frederick’s position at the start: Puebla’s infantry division, Andlau’s infantry division, Stampach’s cavalry division, Nádasdy’s hussar division, Beck’s advance guard division, the Detached Grenzer and the Przerovsky Hill Battery, as per the map below.  All other Austrian formations and batteries are kept off-table.

Once all Prussian units are deployed AND once Frederick has written his orders and shown them to the umpire, the Austrian player will then place his remaining units on the table and then write his orders.

Remember that Frederick will be unable to change his orders until the Command Phase at the end of Turn 2.

Prussian Fog-of-War Map

Optional Prussian Orders

Optional Rule 1:  At the start of the game, only the commands of Zieten, Krosigk, Hülsen and Normann may be given orders.  The Reserve Artillery may also act as desired.  The remainder of the army must remain on Defend orders while they await the outcome of the initial attack.  They may receive orders from the Command Phase of Turn 2 onward.

Optional Rule 2:  As described above, Bevern’s division, having been forced to remain motionless in column on the Kaiserstrasse, while being plagued by grenzer and long-range artillery fire for several hours, launched an un-ordered and uncoordinated attack on the Przerovsky Hill.  This might therefore be a ‘fun’ event to spring upon an unsuspecting Prussian player…

Following the Command Phase at the end of Turn 4, change Bevern’s divisional orders to ‘Attack’ and place a Command Arrow on the map, leading directly to the top of Przerovsky Hill.  This will immediately supercede any orders previously issued to Bevern.

All units in Bevern’s division must immediately change formation into line (if necessary) and must move at full speed toward the new objective for two turns, even if this disrupts flank alignment.

Bevern’s division will keep these orders until they are changed in the normal manner.  An ADC may NOT be sent to Bevern to change his orders until the Command Phase of Turn 6.  Any ADCs already en route to Bevern will be returned to the King’s HQ at the end of the turn.

Terrain Notes

It should first be noted that the entire battlefield was a long ridge, running east to west up the centre of the table, with the Krzeczor and Przerovsky Hills being the highest point along it.  However, the gentle, steady slopes didn’t confer any great advantage or disadvantage to either side, so I’ve only included the notable hills, where the ground does steepen markedly.  I find that large areas of high ground are often beyond the terrain collections of most wargamers, so I’ve left it out for the sake of simplicity.

Feel free to add the ridge if you prefer.  The contoured maps from the Prussian Greater General Staff study (shown above) are an excellent reference.

For the terrain effects described below, please refer to the Terrain Effects Chart on Page 2 of the Tricorn QRS (linked).

The small woods around Bristvi, Chotzemitz and Blinka are small wooded ravines, containing springs and stream-beds that were probably dry at this time of year.  Class as Rough Ground.

All other woods shown on the map are classed as Woods, as per the chart.  Formed units in column and limbered artillery may move along woodland roads at full speed, but may not charge while doing so.  If charged while on a woodland road, cavalry will fight using their Disordered Morale Rating.

The streams are classed as Streams, as per the chart.  Formed units in column and limbered artillery may cross them at full speed wherever a road crosses them.

The pond in front of Poborz is impassable but may be by-passed by Puebla’s off-table battalions; these may be brought on to table immediately to the north of the pond.

The roads are largely just decorative and only affect movement where they cross a stream or pass through a town, as discussed above.

The villages of Krzeczor and Radowesnitz each consist of two built-up sectors (BUS).  The villages of Kutlire, Chotzemitz, Brzenau, Blinka and Poborz each consist of a single BUS.  Each BUS may accommodate a single infantry battalion or two skirmisher stands.

The northern BUS of Krzeczor is dominated by the church and is classed as Fortified, with a +2 defensive modifier.  All other BUS have the usual +1 defensive modifier.

Bristvi, Slate-Slunce and Novi-Mesto are too small to be represented as BUS and instead simply act as Rough Ground.

The Swedish Works are classed as Entrenchments, having a +1 defensive modifier and being impassable to cavalry and artillery.

The landscape had large areas of shoulder-high crops, but these don’t seem to have impeded movement to any degree, so I haven’t accounted f0r them.

That’s all for now!  I’m hoping to get a couple of Napoleonic games in next week (a small one on Thursday night and a big one on Saturday), so it should be a good week for wargaming.

Lastly my apologies to anyone trying to subscribe to this blog.  I’ve just noticed that the subscription widget has disappeared from the bottom of the page and despite my best efforts, I can’t get it back!  I will ask Tech Support (daughter) to have a look at it on Sunday. 🙂

This entry was posted in Eighteenth Century, Scenarios, Seven Years War & War of Austrian Succession, Shako Rules, Tricorn (18th Century Shako Rules), Tricorn Scenarios. Bookmark the permalink.

6 Responses to The Battle of Kolin, 18th June 1757: A Scenario for ‘Tricorn’

  1. Norm says:

    Most marvellous, surely a candidate for blog post of the year.

  2. Pingback: The Battle of Kolin, 18th June 1757: The Refight | Jemima Fawr's Miniature Wargames Blog

  3. Pingback: The Combat of Pretzsch, 29th October 1759: A Scenario for ‘Tricorn’ | Jemima Fawr's Miniature Wargames Blog

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